Structure Basic sentence, Tips & notes, Addendum
'Kemdikbud' (Ministry of Education and Culture) published a document about the structure of a basic sentence.
The source document (in Indonesian) can be downloaded here (3rd link on that page):
I've only translated chapter 2.1.
The following is a (homemade) summary of that document.
This is another homemade document that might be useful :
Below is a short summary of chapter 2.1.
Kalimat dasar = Kalimat tunggal deklaratif afirmatif yang urutan unsur-unsurnya lazim.
Struktur kalimat dasar bahasa Indonesia dapat dikelompokkan ke dalam beberapa tipe berikut.
1. subjek-predikat (S-P)
2. subjek-predikat-objek (S-P-O)
3. subjek-predikat-pelengkap (S-P-Pel)
4. subjek-predikat-objek-pelengkap (S-P-O-Pel)
5. subjek-predikat-objek-keterangan (S-P-O-K)
6. subjek-predikat-keterangan (S-P-K)
These are six main structures of a basic sentence (declarative affirmative sentence).
They can be expanded into tens of other structures.
Abbreviations used in the document:
[N] = Nomina = noun
[FN] = Frasa Nominal = noun phrase
[V] = Verba = verb
[FV] = Frasa Verbal = verbal phrase
[Adj] = Adjektiva = adjective
[FAdj] = Frasa Adjektival = adjective phrase
[Num] = Numeral
[FNum] = Frasa Numeral = numeral phrase
[Prep] = Preposisi = preposition
[FPrep] = Frasa Preposisional = prepositional phrase
The subject can take the form of : [N], [FN], a clause, or even [FV], [FAdj].
The subject cannot be preceded by a preposition.
If the subject is preceded by a preposition, it becomes a ‘keterangan’ (adverbial complement?)(I don’t know the English grammar term for this).
Many examples show that the sentence starts with the subject, but the subject can also occur at the end of the sentence (see examples in 2.1).
The predicate can take the form of : [V], [FV], [Adj], [FAdj], [N], [FN].
[FNum] can also function as a predicate (see TBBI 9.4.1.), but is not mentioned here.
The predicate usually follows the subject (S-P).
Another characteristic is that it can be negated, using ‘tidak’ or ‘bukan’.
‘tidak’ is used to negate these predicates : [V], [FV], [Adj], [FAdj].
‘bukan’ is used to negate these predicates : [N], [FN].
If the predicate is a verb, then it can be accompanied by words like ‘sedang’, ‘belum’, ‘akan’. These words indicate a time dimension.
[FPrep] can also be a predicate, but the use is limited to a specific number of predicates and prepositions.
These forms are preceded by prepositions like : 'di', 'ke', 'dari'.
See example (52), [FPrep] is the predicate in that sentence.
Such a construction is mainly used in the informal spoken language and should be avoided in the formal written style.
The object usually takes the form of : [N], [FN], or a clause and appears after an ‘active transitive predicate’ (S-P-O).
If the predicate is not transitive, then there is no object.
If the predicate is active transitive, then the predicate must be followed by the object, or else the sentence is grammatically incorrect.
Another characteristic of the object is that it cannot be preceded by a preposition.
If a noun is preceded by a preposition, then it is no longer an object but a [FPrep], and a [FPrep] cannot function as an object.
An [FPrep] can only function as ‘keterangan’
(info? Adverbial complement? I don’t know the English grammar term for this).
So, a predicate with an active transitive verb, must be followed by an object and not by a [FPrep].
Another thing to keep in mind is that an object can also appear after ‘keterangan’, even though the predicate is active transitive.
This happens when the object takes the form of a clause or a long subordinate clause in a sentence.
To summarise: an object is only present in an active transitive sentence.
A passive sentence cannot have an object because the predicate is not active transitive.
Pelengkap (Pel), just like the object, is a sentence component whose presence depends on the predicate.
Pelengkap (Pel) can take the form of : [N], [FN], [V], [FV], [Adj], [FAdj].
If the predicate is transitive, then the position is directly after the object. (S-P-O-Pel).
If the predicate is intransitive, or in case it’s a passive verb, then (Pel) can be placed directly after the predicate (S-P-Pel).
I don’t know the English grammar term for ‘pelengkap’.
I think it’s called a complement or an indirect object.
Keterangan (Ket) is a sentence component whose presence is not mandatory (optional).
Keterangan (Ket) can take the form of : [N], [FN], [Fnum], [FPrep], or [Adv].
Keterangan (Ket) in the vorm of [N] or [FN] is generally a time indicator, a temporal marker.
Keterangan (Ket) is mandatory if it is part of the predicate.
Keterangan (Ket) is not mandatoru (optionall) if it is not a part of the predicate.
Keterangan (Ket) can be placed in different positions in the sentence: beginning/middle/end.
I don’t know the English grammar term for ‘keterangan’ (information/explanation)(adverbial complement?).
The source document of the second homemade pdf document is "Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia" (TBBI).
TBBI is the leading Indonesian grammar book published by Kemdikbud who also publishes and maintains the official dictionary KBBI. https://kbbi.web.id/
This is the summary of opening chapter 2, introducing the basic grammar concepts.