I thought it would be "The shoes from the girl are black" How can we tell if von is from or of?
Your interpretation is valid, but without context I would assume it means "of" here.
Why not 'von der Madchen'? the dative case of feminine preposition is 'der', isn't it?
@Mabi77 : "das Mädchen" is grammatically neuter and only biologically feminine.