I need help with Russian
I am trying to improve my Russian but I am stuck on the adjective part.
Especially the last letters of any adjective I find really difficult. Like I dont know when to put which letters. I keep making the same mistakes again and again. For example:
самый красивый дом - The most beautiful house. самое дешёвое вино - The cheapest wine.
большой(big) - больше(bigger) лёгкий(easy) - легче(easier)
Like I dont understand why in the first example you cant also place 'oe' instead of ''ый''.
Can someone give me some times on how to improve on this? Because most other subjects about the Russian language I already get. Its only the adjective part which is the most difficult for me.
Don't worry, we all need help with Russian.
The endings of adjectives depend on the nouns they describe: ий for masculine, ая for feminine, ое for neuter. Then there are plurals and cases to worry about.
See the declensions for большой here for example: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D0%B1%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D1%88%D0%BE%D0%B9
It is too difficult - only experience will help you.
The end depend on 1)Grammatical case - linguists distinguish 15, but the main 6 you no need others (even at school russian children learn only 6) 2)Grammatical gender - masculine, feminine, neuter (there are still neutral, but this is not necessary) 3)Number - singular , plural.
Thanks for your reply. But aren't there some basic tips I missed with learning adjectives, because I keep making the same mistakes?
Also personal and possesive pronouns I am absolutely horrible with. Any tips on this aswell?
Forgive me if I am asking too many questions. Its just that I am so stuck and I have no clue on how to really continue.
Basically your adjective needs to agree in number, gender, and case with your noun (number and gender have an interesting relationship in Russian...essentially gender disappears in the plural, or you can think of the plural as a gender of its own. You also need to know whether the noun is animate or inanimate, as that will affect the accusative case). Once you know the case and the gender/number of your noun, you can decline the adjective to agree with your noun. In your example of самый красивый дом, дом is either masculine inanimate singular nominative or accusative, depending on context. So you have to use the masculine (singular) inanimate nominative or accusative case of the adjectives самый and красивый (which happen to be самый and красивый). Самое красивое would only work for a neuter singular noun in the nominative or accusative case (like озеро...Самое красивое озеро). You are also asking about forming comparatives and superlatives (ie. Красивее/красивей "more beautiful"). The way to form these is way beyond the scope of what I can answer because there are tons of rules about irregular comparatives and consonant mutation. You can look these up, or you can just learn what the comparatives of each adjective you need are. There are also "short form adjectives," which Duolingo covers. These are mostly used in impersonal statements (eg. На диване удобно) but can be used as predicate adjectives too (ie. Он мил...He is nice/sweet...but not Он мил человек...you need Он милый человек...He is a nice person). Other things behave like adjectives too (adjectival participles) but these are easy once you understand adjectives in general, and they are not worth getting into yet. Basically, know the case, gender (and number) and animate/inanimate quality of each noun, and then you can put the corresponding ending on your adjective to match that.
Adjectives (if it can help) - https://cf.ppt-online.org/files/slide/e/eQ8ELgtRywnjG5PZ6JUVTCfhSAlvK7pYIH1bFq/slide-14.jpg
pronouns are much easier (just remember and distinguish the grammatical gender, number) https://stuklopechat.com/images/obrazovanie/prityazhatelnie-mestoimeniya-v-russkom-yazike-ih-osobennosti-primeri-upotrebleniya-v-ustojchivih-oborotah_4.jpg
I do not know articles on this topic in English - I am on the other side :) (I am nativ-Russian)
One thing that really helped me is to memorize what's called a "case chart" (If you look up "russian case chart" on google the one I used is the first one you see under images). It's a lot of work to memorize but I really liked how everything was laid out in front of me. It can be kind of daunting when you first look at it but once you understand how the chart works, it's an amazing tool. You can reply to this post if you would like some help understanding the chart.
Start with Noun Gender: masculine, feminine and neuter. Look at its ending.
Masculine gender ends on consonant and and -й:
дом in a consonant
чай in -й
Feminine gender: ending on: -a -я :
картина in -a
семья in -я
история in -ия Neuter gender: ending on -o and -e. Look at exceptions. Word Ending письмo in -o
платьe in -e
внимание in -ие
время in -мя
if it were that easy, it would be enough to learn 3 the ending of the adjectives (-ый, -ая, -ое) .... determine the grammatical gender - it is 1\3 part for choosing the correct word ending.... what is the difference between "красивому лесу" and "в красивом лесу"?
but you are probably right - this is the first (determine the grammatical gender of a noun)