Because in Catholic sense, God is a distinct person (hence the capital in every language, it's his name). "Die Welt der Götter" would be "The world of gods" like in Nordic mythology, there the capital G in German is just because it's a noun. If you would find a religion which is monotheist and the name of their god is not God, then you would use the definite article in German (for example a member of the church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster probably would).
There are essentially two ways to express possession: the genitive (both in German and English) or preposition + indirect object ( 'of' + indirect object in English, 'von' + dative object in German):
Die Welt Gottes
Die Welt von Gott (colloquial, genitive is preferred. Especially in this example)
The world of God
God's world (normally, genitive is preferred in English, too. But in this particular example 'The world of God' sounds more natural to my non-native ears).
I wouldn't consider it a good translation. "God's world" in a Western context would normally be understood as the world of the Christian god, "the god's world" in the same context would normally be used to refer to the world of any other god. I'd just stick with "Die Welt Gottes" and "the world of God".
Actually there are thousands of persons in this country who are not Christians. Many of them are polytheistic. I personally know a number of persons who are polytheistic, who believe in a number of Goddesses and Gods And who don't appreciate persons who think capitalization should be restricted to the god of only one specific religion. Or is this language class only for Christians? I didn't realize Duolingo was a Christian course of instruction.
even if the determinative article is used? Should I translate what radio.gnome wrote as "the world of the god" maybe? Then a new question about Genitive arises to me: what if I replace Got with a personal name, like Claus or Heidi? I'm pretty sure that there are no examples like this in the Genitive chapter.
Yes, "Die Welt des Gottes" is the same as "the world of the god". You wouldn't normally use a definite article in front of a personal name: "Bettinas Welt". (You wouldn't do so in English either: "The world of the Karl" isn't exactly natural). For some special, very well-known names, it's possible to use a definite article: "Die Welt der Callas". (The world of (Maria) Callas /Callas' world). Usage in German is not that different from English here.
It depends. Normally, genitive attributes follow the noun in modern German. The big exception are proper names which often precede it: "Marias/Gottes Welt". However, it's also possible to put them after the noun: "Die Welt Marias" is a bit less common but equally fine to use. In older or very formal literary texts you may encounter phrases like "Des Bürgers Müll" but these are exceptions. In modern German, you normally say "Der Müll des Bürgers". So, as a rule of thumb: Proper names can be put in front of the noun, most of the other genitive attributes should follow it. Here are the details: http://is.gd/Z1MJzc
But "god" is NOT a personal name, it is a job title or description of what sort of individual one is referring to. We often refer to our beloved dog as "the dog" or "Pooch", but neither is a personal name. Her NAME is Freckles". Similarly, I always addressed my mother as "Mother", but her NAME was Lenore. "God" is not a personal name; it refers to one of a certain type of beings, My mother was a mother; the Biblical god (or gods, if you are one of those who believe that the "god" referred to in the first part of the Bible is different enough from that in the latter part to be clearly a different individual, again, opinions vary) belongs to a class of beings called deities or gods or goddesses and gods.
Untrue. Neither "God" nor "Lord" nor "Lord God" nor "Lord of Hosts" etc. is a personal name. Now, "Yahweh" - that is a personal name. The writers of the material considered scripture by Christians may have referred to their deity by a word or words translated into English as a "god" - a superhuman being or spirit worshiped as having power over nature or human fortunes - but that doesn't make it a name. I invariably called my mother "Mother" or "Mom" - but neither of them was her NAME; her name was "Lenore". The name of "Mother" of the kids next door was "Eva May", not "Mother." The name of the Christian god is not "God", just exactly as the "name" of Zeus is not "God", the name of Lord Ganesh is not "God", the name of Odin is not "God", the name of Yahweh/Jehovah is not "God". although any of them may be addressed as "God" by their worshippers, just as I addressed Lenore as "Mother" and the kids next door did the same to Eva May. But I do no consider "Mother" as a personal name, nor is God, Mayor, Teacher, Governor, Colonel...
Sure, you can use the title "Lord" as a substitute for the title "god/God", not only when referring to a christian god ( Jesus /Yahweh), but also to the gods of many other religions. It is common in many religions to refer to a male god as "Lord" and a female god, aka goddess, as "Lady". "God", "Goddess", and "Lord" are common nouns and therefor need not be capitalized as proper nouns (although they often are) are - such as Yahweh, Shiva, Jesus, Siddhartha, Jehovah, Pele, White Buffalo Calf Woman... all personal names, hence requiring a capital. Many common nouns are often capitalized - Goddess, Mother, Lady, Mayor, Teacher, God - as a sign of respect, especially when addressing a person/being by a title rather than a personal name.
MOSTLY yes, but there are very slight nuances in different meanings. "God" is more generalized (e.g. Buddhist gods, "God" as in the singular Abrahamic god, anyone joking/saying "I am god!" or "wow, you're a god at that game!" (like amazingly good), "his god" versus "our god" discussions, etc.) and can thus be lowercase if generalized (e.g. Buddhist gods) or capitalized if singular/proper (e.g. God as the Christian/Jewish god), whereas "Lord" tends to be far more specific and usually only used as a literary/fancy/flowery way to capture the same concept of the Christian god but without being so redundant of using the same word "god" constantly.
SOMETIMES people use "-lord" as a suffix for certain games (like a Death-Lord or something) or e.g. Dr. Who's "time-lord" concept, but that has a more specific idea referring more to mystical/fantastical types of supernatural stuff if used in that very specific context.
But GENERALLY they're almost interchangeable. When in doubt, always go with "god," but if you're referring to the Christian god, feel free to use "Lord" so as to not be repetitive.
Hopefully that makes sense. Sorry if it's confusing.
"this [using] ["the word 'the Lord' as a synonym for 'the god'] only works for the christian (capitalized) god." I see. So any Hindus around (we have a temple in my town) had better stop referring to their gods as "Lord So-and-So"? Bad Hindu! You stop referring to Lord Shiva or Lord Ganesh as "Lord" right this moment! Only Christians or Jews can use that term, you impertinent heathen!"?
Per Levi's post about "God almighty! = Lord almighty!" per my other post, I would contest that they're NOT identical.
"Oh my god!" = "goodness gracious" or "for f***'s sake!" or "Geez!" versus "Oh my Lord!" sounds far more proper and almost like what an older person would say, for whom "Oh my god" was too sacrilegious/heretical and who might be more inclined to say "Oh my word" instead (to be even more NON-using "The Lord's name in vain" as they say).
"God" is considerably more versatile. "Lord" makes you sound more prim and proper and/or like an old person who's trying to not sound too racy or offensive.
Another example of this is the swear/cuss-phrase god-dnit!!! (="Gottverdammt!") - you would never hear anyone say "Lord-dmit" because that just sounds weird.
"Lord" is also the standard way to refer the male deity in general, not as a specific Cernunnos or Odin or Zeus or any of the other gods worshipped by Neo-Pagans. Wiccans, especially, worship "the Lady and the Lord", as well as many specific deities. Lady and Lord are the standard way to address the Goddess and the God (no, I do not mean the Christian one here). I understand that Hindus use "Sri " to refer tp their deities, which is translated as "Lord" when referring to male deities, Lord Ganesh for example.
Is there a reason a von does not work in the context here ?
See wataya's response to blargblargblarg above.
Is it because this sentence is in the gentive case ?
No, there's no such thing as a genitive sentence. Individual nouns have cases; sentences don't. "Gottes" would be a genitive noun, or there is the other construction "von Gott" which does not have a genitive.
How wonderful that in the USA we live under a constitution with the First Amendment guaranteeing us the right to disagree - to disagree and to do so SAFELY, a privilege not available in all areas of the globe. Long live Thomas Jefferson's "wall of separation", which benefits both religion(s) and the state!
Sometimes it actually is "THE" God" in English. Christians do not refer to their god concept as "the God" to be sure - although I have heard Evangelicals refer to "the Lord God" - but Wiccans, for example, regularly speak of THEIR concept of male deity as "the God" (similarly they speak of their goddess as "the Goddess"). Both of these two religions, on the other hand, frequently refer to "the [sic] Lord" (although only when speaking about the lord in question, not when addressing him directly). And of course there are many other religions practiced in the English-speaking world; I can't say how many of them might use the definite article in speaking of their male deity/deities.