"Die Welt Gottes ist groß."
Translation:The world of God is great.
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Because in Catholic sense, God is a distinct person (hence the capital in every language, it's his name). "Die Welt der Götter" would be "The world of gods" like in Nordic mythology, there the capital G in German is just because it's a noun. If you would find a religion which is monotheist and the name of their god is not God, then you would use the definite article in German (for example a member of the church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster probably would).
There are essentially two ways to express possession: the genitive (both in German and English) or preposition + indirect object ( 'of' + indirect object in English, 'von' + dative object in German):
Die Welt Gottes
Die Welt von Gott (colloquial, genitive is preferred. Especially in this example)
The world of God
God's world (normally, genitive is preferred in English, too. But in this particular example 'The world of God' sounds more natural to my non-native ears).
I wouldn't consider it a good translation. "God's world" in a Western context would normally be understood as the world of the Christian god, "the god's world" in the same context would normally be used to refer to the world of any other god. I'd just stick with "Die Welt Gottes" and "the world of God".
even if the determinative article is used? Should I translate what radio.gnome wrote as "the world of the god" maybe? Then a new question about Genitive arises to me: what if I replace Got with a personal name, like Claus or Heidi? I'm pretty sure that there are no examples like this in the Genitive chapter.
Yes, "Die Welt des Gottes" is the same as "the world of the god". You wouldn't normally use a definite article in front of a personal name: "Bettinas Welt". (You wouldn't do so in English either: "The world of the Karl" isn't exactly natural). For some special, very well-known names, it's possible to use a definite article: "Die Welt der Callas". (The world of (Maria) Callas /Callas' world). Usage in German is not that different from English here.
It depends. Normally, genitive attributes follow the noun in modern German. The big exception are proper names which often precede it: "Marias/Gottes Welt". However, it's also possible to put them after the noun: "Die Welt Marias" is a bit less common but equally fine to use. In older or very formal literary texts you may encounter phrases like "Des Bürgers Müll" but these are exceptions. In modern German, you normally say "Der Müll des Bürgers". So, as a rule of thumb: Proper names can be put in front of the noun, most of the other genitive attributes should follow it. Here are the details: http://is.gd/Z1MJzc
Literal translations are very seldom the best option. Were it so, we'd be translating "Schweinfleisch" to "Pig Flesh" instead of "Pork"and "Kühlschrank" to "cool cabinet" instead of "fridge"! I suspect, if you are an English speaker of only modest Christian connection, "the Kingdom of God" would be the go-to phrase to express "the World of God".
MOSTLY yes, but there are very slight nuances in different meanings. "God" is more generalized (e.g. Buddhist gods, "God" as in the singular Abrahamic god, anyone joking/saying "I am god!" or "wow, you're a god at that game!" (like amazingly good), "his god" versus "our god" discussions, etc.) and can thus be lowercase if generalized (e.g. Buddhist gods) or capitalized if singular/proper (e.g. God as the Christian/Jewish god), whereas "Lord" tends to be far more specific and usually only used as a literary/fancy/flowery way to capture the same concept of the Christian god but without being so redundant of using the same word "god" constantly.
SOMETIMES people use "-lord" as a suffix for certain games (like a Death-Lord or something) or e.g. Dr. Who's "time-lord" concept, but that has a more specific idea referring more to mystical/fantastical types of supernatural stuff if used in that very specific context.
But GENERALLY they're almost interchangeable. When in doubt, always go with "god," but if you're referring to the Christian god, feel free to use "Lord" so as to not be repetitive.
Hopefully that makes sense. Sorry if it's confusing.
"this [using] ["the word 'the Lord' as a synonym for 'the god'] only works for the christian (capitalized) god." I see. So any Hindus around (we have a temple in my town) had better stop referring to their gods as "Lord So-and-So"? Bad Hindu! You stop referring to Lord Shiva or Lord Ganesh as "Lord" right this moment! Only Christians or Jews can use that term, you impertinent heathen!"?
Per Levi's post about "God almighty! = Lord almighty!" per my other post, I would contest that they're NOT identical.
"Oh my god!" = "goodness gracious" or "for f***'s sake!" or "Geez!" versus "Oh my Lord!" sounds far more proper and almost like what an older person would say, for whom "Oh my god" was too sacrilegious/heretical and who might be more inclined to say "Oh my word" instead (to be even more NON-using "The Lord's name in vain" as they say).
"God" is considerably more versatile. "Lord" makes you sound more prim and proper and/or like an old person who's trying to not sound too racy or offensive.
Another example of this is the swear/cuss-phrase god-dnit!!! (="Gottverdammt!") - you would never hear anyone say "Lord-dmit" because that just sounds weird.
Is there a reason a von does not work in the context here ?
See wataya's response to blargblargblarg above.
Is it because this sentence is in the gentive case ?
No, there's no such thing as a genitive sentence. Individual nouns have cases; sentences don't. "Gottes" would be a genitive noun, or there is the other construction "von Gott" which does not have a genitive.