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Verbs with a `e+consonant+er` pattern

Links: Verbs ~er group:3 important spelling rules , learning loom

~e +consonant+ er ...and... +consonant+er

Before we begin on " ~e+consonant+er " verbs it is necessary to understand


Since the 1990 reforms, all the verbs whose infinitif and has the pattern ~e+consonant+er , or , ~é+consonant+er, change the e or é ( accent aigu ) before the consonant to è ( accent grave ).

Consonants are the same consonants that are in English, plus: * ch , gn , gl . This is as they are considered a single consonant sound.

for interest sake: 'gh' , 'th' , 'ng' are also considered as single consonant sounds, and have spelling impacts. However they are not used in any of the consonants in the verb pattern '~e+consonant+er'

With the following exceptions:

  • ê is not changed and acts as a standard 'groupe 1 verbe`, see the example (to be inserted)

ê The accent circonflex (^) may be placed on all vowels but does not cause any significant sound change when compared to the standard sound accent aigu it may only make the vowel sound slightly longer. Compare é to ê

Like accent aigu, this accent often replaces an s from Old French, which can give a clue to the meaning of the word.


The single consonant 'x' is equivalent to having a double consonant, and if there is an 'e' or 'é' before an 'x', the verb will be treated as a standard ~er verb, meaning there is no change to the 'e' before an "x".


Except for appeler, jeter (and their associated variant verbs) - which instead double the consonant in relevant tenses.

  • appeler ; rappeler

  • jeter ; déjeter ; forjeter ; interjeter ; projeter ; rejeter ; surjeter


Apart from appeler and jetter - which were deemed to not be offered 'standardization' in the 1990 reforms,

A fair majority of all the above mentioned verbs can be spelled in a similar way to appeller and jetter, by the doubling of the last consonant before adding the relevant verb ending. These doubling of the last consonant are seen as 'traditional' ways of spelling, and are still accepted as correct. But there are no clear patterns and requires a lot of rote learning. So for the future being simpler and easier, and for the purposes of assisting communications - being for the purpose of being able to communicate instead of being a history lesson - I choose to always use the standardized reformed spelling.


And the last to remember that this does not affect "nous" and "vous" , but all the others are part of the play : je ; le ; la ; on ; il ; elle ; ils ; ils ; elles.


So now you have ALL the theories and rules, lets see some in ACTION ... { page in development ...}

(please also be aware - this article is yet to be 'peer reviewed' - in this instance - actually reviewed by someone who is skilled in french. This is currently my interpretations of text and references)

May 14, 2014

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