"Aamir will give my book on Tuesday."
Translation:आमिर मंगलवार को मेरी किताब देगा ।
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This is confusing because in English things have to be given to someone. "Aamir will give ME my book on Tuesday" or "Aamir will give my book to (person) on Tuesday" or "Aamir will give my book BACK on Tuesday" would all make sense. Is one of these implied in the Hindi sentence?
Agreed; the English sentence needs an indirect object.
I think to whom the book is being given in the Hindi sentence would depend on context (whether it's to the speaker, the listener, etc.) It might even mean totally different things; when I read this sentence, the first thing I thought of was how teachers take homework/exams/etc. in Hindi and students give them. :)
With time expressions longer than a day, में lines up pretty closely with the English word "in", and को lines up pretty closely with the English words "on. (However, also see: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/28096579?comment_id=42457349)
In the context of this lesson, it can probably be simplified to "Use में after months and को after days."
(The exception would be if you said "There are 24 hours in a day" -- that would be "एक दिन में चौबीस घंटे होते हैं".)
Also don't feel bad if it confuses you; prepositions (or postpositions, in Hindi's case) tend to highly idiomatic in any language, so oftentimes it's just a matter of copying the examples and what you hear people say until it feels natural. Don't worry if it doesn't seem to make sense at first. :)