"Who ordered you to go?"
Translation:Siapa yang memerintahkan agar kamu pergi?
How does "agar" work in this sentence and how does it differentiate from "untuk"?
Would the translation also be correct without "agar"?
'agar' = 'supaya' <== synonyms ('so that').
'Siapa yang memerintahkan agar kamu pergi?'
'Tono memerintahkan agar kamu pergi'
It's easier to convert the example sentence into a standard declarative sentence.
If the sentence would still have all the components, then it would look like this :
'Tono [S] memerintahkan [P] kamu [O] agar kamu pergi.'
The subject of the 'agar' clause is also the object of the main clause.
In a sentence structure like this, the object of the main clause can be dropped.
'Tono memerintahkan (kamu) agar kamu pergi.'
'Tono memerintahkan (kamu) supaya kamu pergi.'
if there is no subject in the clause, then 'supaya' can be replaced by 'untuk'.
In such a sentence the object of the main clause cannot be dropped.
The sentence would look like this:
'Tono memerintahkan kamu agar pergi.'
'Tono memerintahkan kamu supaya pergi.'
'Tono memerintahkan kamu untuk pergi.'
I think many people have a subconscious tendency to translate using english grammar rules (or usage of their own native language). In english we would say "who ordered you to go?" but probably sometimes there is another grammar basis in some cases in Indonesian. Here, I guess "pergi" can not stand alone without preposition (or something similar) in the question. We could imagine like there is not such a sentence exactly same like "who ordered you to go?" so we always need to say "who ordered you (told you) that you have to go. Maybe "agar" has that meaning here? It is just my guess
EDIT: or how I feel that difference between both options: 1) "Siapa yang memerintahkan kamu pergi?" would maybe say someone who is sure that there was someone who ordered and we just listened to that person 2) "Siapa yang memerintahkan agar kamu pergi?" in this meaning the person asking is not absolutely sure that we were ordered to go, but he is convinced we were ("I think that someone must have ordered you that is why you came here and I am asking who that was")