"This girl is five years old."

Translation:ʻElima makahiki o kēia kaikamahine.

December 17, 2018

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Why does "kēia" come between the "o" and "kaikamahine" instead of after?


Demonstratives come before the noun they demonstrate. Descriptors come after the nouns they describe.


So in the other sentences where the demonstrative comes at the end of the sentence it's actually a descriptor? For example: He waiū hou kēia? Is this fresh milk? Or does it come at the end in that case because it's a question?


So in English we can say, "this girl". That is a demostrative adjective - it is attached to a noun. Then we can also just say "this", like "This is milk." That is a demonstration pronoun - it is standing alone and representing the whole noun.

Same thing in Hawaiian. "Waiū hou" means "fresh milk". "Kēia maukuahine" means "this girl". "Hou kēia waiū," would mean, "this milk is fresh." You can tell kēia is attached to the milk because it is in front of it. If Kēia is after the milk, then it must be doing something else, so, "He waiū hou kēia," means, "This is fresh milk," and the kēia is acting all on its own and not attached to anything.


Now that is one good explanation. Mahalo.


That's good to know. Thanks for the help.


Another way to look at it is as a dropped "mea". He waiu hou keia mea. = He waiu hou keia ( ). The "keia" is in front of the omitted noun "mea".


What's the difference between 'o and o (with and w/o the 'okina)?


'O (with okina) marks the subject. o (without okina) indicates ownership.


In several exercises (many) I've seen "he" required before any number. Can someone explain to me the difference here, where "He 'elima makahiki o kēia kaikamahine" would have been unacceptable?

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