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  5. "Anuanu ka makani i ke kau ho…

"Anuanu ka makani i ke kau hoʻoilo."

Translation:The wind is cold in the winter.

December 29, 2018



(Winter) https://www.bustle.com/p/does-it-snow-in-hawaii-the-islands-winter-weather-is-totally-intriguing-people-6616897

Snowfall is actually pretty typical in the state (of Hawaii), though only on the summits of its three largest volcanoes: Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea, on the Big Island, and Haleakala, on Maui.

i ke kau kupulau = in the spring

i ke kau wela = in the summer

i ke kau hāʻulelau = in the fall

i ke kau hoʻoilo = in the winter


The wind is cold during the winter season. The wind is cold in the winter season. The wind is cold in winter. The wind is cold during winter. Ack!


Where is the verb? "Anuanu" is used as an adjective describing "wind." Is the "is" supposed to be "understood", and if so, how are we supposed to know this, please?


"Anuanu" is the main verb in this sentence. It's what I sometimes call a noun/verb/adjective/adverb. The technical term for this kind of word is "‘a‘ano" (from "‘ano", meaning "variety", "condition", "character", and so forth).


Forget about "verb", "adjective" and those guys. For Hawaiian, those categories mislead more often than they lead. Better word categories in Hawaiian (for "content words") are:

‘a‘ano: descriptive words, also called "stative verbs". An example would be "anuanu" (the feeling of being cold).

kikino (from "kino" [body, shape or form]): "common nouns", but note that "many kikino, ‘a‘ani, hamani, hehele, or i‘oa can be used as adjectives or adverbs in Hawaiian" (https://hilo.hawaii.edu/wehe/?q=kikino&l). An example of a "kikino" would be "ke keiki" (the child).

i‘oa: "proper nouns" (https://oleloonline.com/0605v-ioa-proper-nouns-introduction/). I've more often seen the word "inoa" (name) used for this group.

hamani: "action verbs", such as "‘ai" (to eat). Note that despite the fact that "‘ai" is classified as a kind of verb, "ka ‘ai" means "food", especially vegetable food.

hehele: "intransitive verbs", such as "hele" (to walk).

So, this sentence is:

"Anuanu" VERB (in this sentence): "feel cold"

"ka makani" SUBJECT: "the wind"

"i ke kau ho‘oilo" ADVERB (adverbial phrase indicating time): "in the winter".

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