What do these characters mean?
I noticed while learning Japanese theres other characters. Like in the sentence "わたし日本語がはなせます” (I can speak Japanese).... what purpose does the が serve?
As I understand (if I understand correctly):
は means that you are talking about 私 [わたし] (yourself)
が means that 日本語 [にほんご] (Japanese) is the subject of the sentence, so 日本語 is doing something
話せます [はなせます] (able to speak) is a verb
So, direct translation: As for me, Japanese language can be spoken.
が is a particle in this sentence it it used to show what the sentences subject is. There are probably better resources to explain this, but here is one that explains it pretty simply in my opinion. http://www.punipunijapan.com/japanese-particles-wa-ga/
The sentence in Japanese is not clear. It means "(First person) Japanese is spoken."
To say "I can speak Japanese," the translation is 私は日本語を話せます。
But according to https://jisho.org/search/%E8%A9%B1%E3%81%9B%E3%81%BE%E3%81%99
話せます is an intransitive verb. So it cannot take a direct object, so you cannot use を with it. Or am I wrong?
I don't know why it says that it's intransitive, other than it usually is. But when your are talking about a language, it's always ”X語を話す。”
I'm Japanese. I'm not guessing here. What you wrote is "I speak Japanese," not "I can speak Japanese."