"He is a man who loves hula."
Translation:He kāne puni hula ʻo ia.
Your sentence would translate in a weird way as closest to such:
He kāne puni = The desired man
I ka hula = is hula
And the ‘o ia is out of place for such a sentence.
I try to tell people to imagine the english in "Yoda form." A _, he is.
A hula-loving man, he is. = He kāne puni hula ‘o ia.
To form "hula-loving man," the descriptor goes after the subject. Other examples would be ka lā malie = the calm day, ke kāne ‘akamai = the smart man.
Even the descriptor of what the desire is goes after the word for desire. This is how we get "puni hula."
Hope this makes sense!
I still don't understand why in other sentences we put "i" + article to indicate the object of the verb, and here we don't do that.
I would write "he kāne puni i ka hula ‘o ia" because "hula" is an object of the verb. Why am I wrong? Is it because "hula" in this sentence is considered as an adjective instead of a noun?
That’s the subject, ie the man you’re talking about. From my understanding, ʻo ia indicates a third party, in this case functioning similarly to the English pronoun “he.”
Someone else could probably explain it better. Apologies if I have anything wrong. I’ll delete my comment if so to avoid spreading misinformation.
Yes! I hate that duolingo has no side notes for these kinds of things, but you are correct. A more direct translation is "he is a hula-loving man."
I'm not sure why they insist on expanding it to "he is a man who loves hula." This should really be added as an after thought or an "other translation" at the bottom somewhere.
If you want to interpret it in the Hawaiian way, (and this can help with the other sentences as well) try imagining the language is Yoda-oriented.
The most direct translation would be as follows (i've added some brackets to show the flow]:
[A hula-loving man] he is.
[He kāne puni hula] ‘o ia.
Sorry this is sort of long, but I figured I'd include the whole explanation I copied from elsewhere in Duo instead of trying to pick and choose (bottom line - 'O is mostly a proper noun marker, except with "ia" and "wai") (but see an addendum in the next comment below!):
“’O” is a subject marker, meaning that what comes after it is the subject of the sentence.
‘O is a particle that marks words, so you have to use it with the word your marking. Ia is the actual problem, and must always be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject in a sentence. Proper names must also be marked with ‘o when being used as the subject.
‘O (‘okina o) is a particle marking the subject and is used in front of a person’s name, sometimes a place name (eg. Waikīkī, Maui, Hale’iwa, etc.) or in front of ia (‘o ia) for he, she or it. Just plain o is the preposition of. Check out wehewehe.org (online Hawaiian Dictionary) for more explanations.
It’s probably best not to think of ‘o as a subject particle, it’s really a proper noun determiner, but is only used when the proper noun is a subject.
In English proper nouns do not take articles, but standard nouns do take articles. So we use an article when we say, “The city is humid,” but we don’t use an article when we say, “Hilo is humid.” It’s similar in Hawaiian, but rather than leaving the determiner off, we use a special proper noun determiner ‘o. When there is a marker in front of the proper noun indicating its role in the sentence (so most of the times when it is not the subject), we leave the special proper noun determiner off.
Note that the ‘o determiner is also used with the pronoun “ia” (“he/she/it”) and the question word “wai” (“who”)."
addendum!!! Just after I posted that "helpful hint" I copied from an earlier lesson (above), I was doing another lesson with this example:
ʻO ka mahina hea kēia? = What (which) month is this? ʻO kēia ka mahina ʻo Iune. = This is the month, June.
So that blows the theory of just using 'O with proper nouns, except "ia" and "wai." (Or maybe that's why it says "MOSTLY" :) ....)
(Or maybe that's all the "equational sentences" thing. If you want to really be confused, see this discussion: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31277143)