"The restaurant is near the Great Hall."
Translation:vaS'a'Daq Sum Qe'.
Is -Daq required here?
If so, why? Doesn't it mean "in / on"?
in, on, at
Isn't the location sufficiently defined by Sum?
No. Sum just means "be close, be nearby". Not "be close to".
So if you want to say that it's close to the great hall, in Klingon you effectively have to say "at the Great Hall, the restaurant is close" = vaS'a'Daq Sum Qe'.
Similarly with Hop which is "be far, be distant", not "be far from" -- again, you would use -Daq to specify the reference point (vaS'a'Daq Hop Qe' "[when you are] at the Great Hall, the restaurant is far" = the restaurant is far from the Great Hall).
So near and far are a different class of words from "next to", "in front of" etc.
That's right! They aren't nouns ("vicinity, distance") but verbs ("be close, be far") so you can't say "The restaurant is in the Great Hall's vicinity" like you would say "The restaurant is in the Great Hall's area-beside / area-in-front" (vaS''a' retlhDaq / tlhopDaq 'oH Qe''e').
So, yes, "near, far" work differently from "next to, in front of, above, below, between".
The -'e' focus/topic marker is only required when using a pronoun as if it were the verb "to be" connecting two nouns or connecting a noun to a location. So if we were to say "A restaurant is a building," (equating two nouns), we would use the pronoun 'oH to connect those two nouns in the sentence qach 'oH Qe''e'. Here the -'e' is required because we are using the pronoun 'oH as if it were a connecting verb.
And when using a pronoun as "to be" for a location, we might say, vaS'a'Daq 'oH Qe''e' ("The restaurant is at the Great Hall."). Again, the -'e' is required because of the 'oH pronoun being used for connection.
However, the sentence in this exercise is NOT using a pronoun to act as the verb "to be". This sentence uses an actual verb: Sum. This verb already includes the concept of "to be" within it: "to be nearby". But that doesn't mean it is following the same pattern as using a pronoun as "to be". Sum is not a pronoun, it is an actual verb. That means that the -'e' suffix is NOT required. So the sentence vaS'a'Daq Sum Qe' is correct for "At the Great Hall, the restaurant is nearby."
Note, also, that, in English, adjectives are treated much like nouns in sentences like, "The restaurant is good." But many of the English adjectives are actually verbs in Klingon and so also follow the verb pattern rather than the pronoun pattern and do not need -'e'. So, QaQ Qe' is correct for "The restaurant is good."
Here's the whole sentence that I used as a summary:
The -'e' focus/topic marker is only required when using a pronoun as if it were the verb "to be" connecting two nouns or connecting a noun to a location.
In this exercise, the use of the verb Sum does seem too match the second half of my explanation (it is being used to connect a noun to a location). However, Sum is a verb, not a pronoun, so it fails to match the first part of my explanation which says that -'e' is only required when "using a pronoun as if it were the verb "to be"".