After the death of Saint. Franciszka (in 1226) was divided between the monks divided into two groups. The first wanted to preserve the original radicalism of the life of the founder; she belonged to a few older religious men. The second one opted for adapting the Order's functioning and activity to the ever-increasing number of brothers and for the new tasks set for them by the Church. These were the vast majority.
This tension was eased by General Saint. Bonaventure of Bagnoreggio (1217-1274), referred to as the founder of the Order. At the end of the 13th century, the Franciscans had monasteries in many European countries, and their number exceeded 30,000. At that time, another reformation movement appeared in the convent, the so-called Spirytuałowie. They initiated the so-called observation, or the movement of strict observance of the rule. This movement in the mid-15th century found a great protector in the person of Saint. Bernardine of Siena (1380-1444), vicar general of the order.
In 1517, Pope Leo X called in Rome the chapter of all Franciscans, both observers and those who constituted the core of the convent - the conventual ones who exercised formal power over the observers. Until 1517, the order had one general, he was always a Franciscan mainstream (conventual).
At this chapter, the observers were granted independence, they were called the Minor Brothers of the Regular Observation, they were entrusted with the seal of the Order. This decision of the Pope constituted a formal division of the Order into two autonomous orders: Friars Minor Conventual and Friars Minor Observants. From then on, every order chose its own general.
In subsequent years, new branches formed in the order of the observants: reformists, alkantarists, recollectants, so-called brothers. "Small reform". In 1897, Pope Leo XIII joined all these factions into one order called the Order of Friars Minor.
In the 16th century, the faction of Mateusz of Bascio emerged among the subsequent reformist movements, which initiated the establishment of the third Franciscan order. This faction had support and formal protection in the conventual convent. In 1528, Pope Clement VII gave permission for the formation of a new Order of Friars Minor Capuchins, it was officially approved in 1619.
Order of Friars Minor Conventual
Order of Friars Minor Conventual - Latin. Ordo Fratrum Minorum Conventualium (OFMConv) - is included in the mainstream of the beginning of the order - St. Franciszek and his first companions. This is evidenced by, for example, street names in many European cities in which the Franciscans settled in the first half of the 19th century. XIII century (in Poland, Franciszkańska St. in Krakow). The name of the Conventual Friars Minor convent has been found in documents since 1250. The first monastery in Poland was founded in 1236 in Wrocław, the second in Krakow (1237).
The term "conventual" comes from Latin. conventus (community, common residence). It means a way of life and running a business based on the priority of living in a monastery community. A characteristic feature of this order is apostolate and pastoral ministry through large communities, mainly in cities.
Until the French Revolution (1789), the monks wore gray habits. Currently, in many countries of the world Franciscans are returning to this color. In Poland, the Franciscans wear a black habit, a hood, a white string (belt) and a Franciscan crown.
The monks are called Franciscans. In many countries, the usual historical names are used: gray frairs (British Isles), minors (Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria, Germany), cordeliers (former France).
The most famous Polish saint is Father Maksymilian M. Kolbe (1894-1941). Others are Bl. Archbishop Jakub Strzemię, Blessed Rafał Chyliński, blessed martyrs from World War II: Fr Jan Antonin Bajewski, father Ludwik Pius Bartosik, father Józef Innocenty Guz, father Józef Achilles Puchała, father Karol Herman Stępień, br. Antoni Tymoteusz Trojanowski, Br. Piotr Bonifacy Żukowski. In 1991, the servants of God, Zbigniew Strzałkowski and Father Michał Tomaszek, were murdered in Peru.
The most famous Franciscans are late Father Joachim Bar (lawyer), late Father Juliusz Synowiec (biblical scholar), late Father Cecylian Niezgoda (theologian, expert on Franciscanism), late Father Andrzej Klimuszko (phytotherapist, herbalist), late Father Grzegorz Sroka (phytoterapist, herbalist), father Iwo Zieliński (philosopher), father Leon Dyczewski (sociologist, cultural expert), father Celestyn Napiórkowski (theologian, ecumenist), father Zdzisław Kijas (theologian, ecumenist), o. Zdzisław Suchecki (lawyer), father Stanisław Bazyliński (biblical scholar).
Five Polish bishops come from this order: Father Marian Błażej Kruszyłowicz (Szczecin-Kamień Region), Father Augustyn Januszewicz (Brazil), Father Jan Wilk (Brazil), Father Stanisław Dowlaszewicz (Bolivia), Father Jerzy Maculewicz ( Uzbekistan).
The Order runs typical Franciscan associations and pastoral care: the Knights of the Immaculate, the Secular Franciscan Order, the Franciscan Youth, vocation animation, the Ecological Movement of Saint. Francis and Assisi - REFA. The Franciscans are active