"The dog likes the ball."
Translation:Makemake ka ʻīlio i ke kinipōpō.
Good question! Use ke when the noun that follows begins with the letters K, E, A, or O. Use ka with almost all others! This is commonly referred to as the KEAO rule. Warning: there are some exceptions. Feel free to check out the duolingo.com website to access the Tips & Notes for the course. Unfortunately they are not available on mobile :(
Usually the subject will follow "makemake".
The exception is a negation sentence (ʻaʻole) with a pronoun as the subject. If a sentence that is negated using ʻaʻole has a pronoun (ʻo ia, ʻoe, au, kāua, kākou, etc.) as its subject, then that pronoun moves up in the sentence, so that it comes right after ʻaʻole.
Ex. Makemake au i ka ʻīlio ➜ Negation: ʻAʻole au makemake i ka ʻīlio.
Otherwise, the order stays the same as usual.
Ex. Makemake ʻo Kaleo i ka ʻīlio ➜ Negation: ʻAʻole makemake ʻo Kaleo i ka ʻīlio.
Ex. Makemake ka ʻīlio i ke kinipōpō ➜ Negation: ʻAʻole makemake ka ʻīlio i ke kinipōpō.