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  5. "torgh, mara, Su'IH!"

"torgh, mara, Su'IH!"

Translation:Torg, Mara, you are beautiful.

January 13, 2019

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/La_Mariette

Okay, so...the pronouns are only used with nouns? (You are + noun)? Therefore no "torgh, mara, 'IH tlhIH'e'"?


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jdmcowan

Correct. Nouns and locations would use a pronoun as verb. Anything that's an adjective in English is actually a verb in Klingon, so you already have a verb and don't use a pronoun as the verb.

You can still use the pronoun to replace the subject, though. So you can say: Su'IH tlhIH "You are beautiful.". But in this case, the "are" is coming from the verb ("beautiful"), not the pronoun.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/DavidTrimb3

Personal pronouns have two uses. In basic sentences they are simply replacements for nouns:

'IH torgh mara je Mara and Torg are beautiful
'IH chaH They are beautiful

When used as subject or object, and when you don't need to hang any suffixes on them for some reason, pronouns like this can usually be dropped:

bI'IH SoH You are beautiful
bI'IH You are beautiful

You can choose to keep them when you need to clarify a sentence that might be ambiguous without them.

'IH He/she/it/they is/are beautiful
'IH chaH They are beautiful

As I said, you might need to keep a pronoun around to hang a suffix on it, as you have done:

Su'IH tlhIH'e' YOU are beautiful; you, as opposed to someone else, are beautiful

You couldn't do that if there weren't a word to put the -'e' on.

The other function of pronouns is to identify nouns and link nouns together. In English this is usually done with the verb be. In Klingon it is done with pronouns.

tlhIngan ghaH He is a Klingon (literally, Him Klingon)
tlhIngan ghaH HoD'e' The captain is a Klingon (literally, The captain, him Klingon)
DujDaq ghaHtaH HoD'e' The captain is on the ship (literally, The captain, him-continuous on the ship

That last example illustrates a feature of using pronouns in this way: they can use verb suffixes as needed. This does not make them verbs, and it does not make them mean be; it is simply a feature of the language. ghaH does not mean he is; it means he, him and is used in these linking sentences where English would use he is.

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