https://www.duolingo.com/jzsuzsi

-ja or -juk

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In the lessons about possessives (skills Possess 1, Possess 2, to have 1, to have 2, Plural possessions, and choices 5 ) you learn about the possessive suffixes . The forms are as follows:

Hungarian English
1SG -öm, -om, -m my
2SG -öd, -ed, -od, -d your (sg.)
3SG -je, -ja, -a his/her/its
1PL -ünk, -unk, -nk our
2PL -(ö)tök, -(e)tek, -(o)tok your (pl.)
3PL -jük, -juk, -uk their

Sometimes the j sound is not needed, like asztala, asztaluk, but it is not what I'm talking about today. But rather the 3rd person plural. It behaves strangely.

Tips& notes say:
Exceptions

As usual, there are a few exceptions to the general rule. When the possessor is third person plural, the forms change in one of two ways. First, when the possessor is a pronoun, ők ‘they’, the pronoun loses its -k. (This only happens with ők, all other pronouns stay intact.)

  • az ő cipőjük ‘their shoe’

  • az ő asztaluk ‘their table’

So it looks like a singular possessor, but is still plural. Second, when the possessor is a noun in the plural, like a lányok, the possessed noun loses its plural ending -(j)uk or -(j)ük

  • a lányok cipője ‘the girls' shoe’

  • a lányok asztala ‘the girls' table'

How does it work in general?

First, we have to make a distinction. Do we have a Possessive sentence, like The boy's dog is black. A fiú kutyája fekete.

or a to have sentence: The boy has a dog. A fiúnak van egy kutyája.

So, in total:

Possessive sentence To have sentence
they -juk -juk
az ő kutyájuk (nekik) van egy kutyájuk
their dog they have a dog
plural noun -ja -juk*
a fiúk kutyája, a fiúknak a kutyája a fiúknak van egy kutyájuk
the boys' dog the boys have a dog
önök, maguk -ja -juk*
az önök kutyája önöknek van egy kutyájuk
your dog you have a dog
not named -juk -juk
a kutyájuk van egy kutyájuk
(their/your) dog (they/you) have a dog

Starred ones:

Here you saw that TO HAVE sentences use -juk. Well... it is not that simple. It is a topic people argue about. Several native Hungarians use -ja in to have sentences, in those cases where you would use -ja in the possessive sentences. For me, the -ja version sounds more natural.

Duolingo sentences usually use -juk in these cases. But both versions are accepted.

Links (in Hungarian)

http://www.e-nyelv.hu/2010-09-15/birtokos-szemelyjelek-egyeztetese-2/

http://www.e-nyelv.hu/2017-03-21/birtokos-szemelyjelek-egyeztetese-9/

https://www.nyest.hu/hirek/a-valtozasoknak-is-van-elonye

http://seas3.elte.hu/delg/publications/modern_talking/112.html

1/15/2019, 5:39:49 PM

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Plazation
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Can you show me how you do this formatting? And btw this really helped

1/15/2019, 6:30:55 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/jzsuzsi
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To make a table: the first line is

| | Hungarian | English |

the second line was

|------------- |-------------| -----|

the third was

|1SG | -öm, -om, -m | my |

and so on

|2SG | -öd, -ed, -od, -d | your (sg.) |

1/16/2019, 10:17:30 AM

https://www.duolingo.com/jzsuzsi
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A similar logic can be used, when the possessed thing is also plural:

Possessive sentence To have sentence
they -ik -ik
az ő kutyáik (nekik) vannak kutyáik
their dogs they have dogs
plural noun -i -ik*
a fiúk kutyái, a fiúknak a kutyái a fiúknak vannak kutyáik
the boys' dogs the boys have dogs
önök, maguk -i -ik*
az önök kutyái önöknek vannak kutyáik
your dogs you have dogs
not named -ik -ik
a kutyáik vannak kutyáik
(their/your) dogs (they/you) have dogs
2/17/2019, 10:44:48 AM
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