"O homem decide passar no hospital."
Translation:The man decides to pass by the hospital.
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Again there seem to be problems with my English. So I thought that 'pass by' or 'go by' meant pass without stopping, and 'stop by' would mean stay for some time and then continue on your way. Am I wrong? As Paulenrique is saying the Portuguese sentence clearly means the latter. In this case I would just silently imagine the word 'tempo' like 'passar tempo no hospital' ~ 'pass time (pastime 8-) in the hospital' to store it in my mind.
I agree I think pass by and go by are VERY ambiguous. The translation of the sentence in question had two different meanings both of which are the opposite of each other. In English it's better to just say "he goes to the hospital"! Or something like "he decides to stop off at the hospital on his way (to somewhere else)."
That's true, passing by doesn't exclude going in. Your example sounds right to me, and you can say something like "If we pass by a gas station, can we stop to use the bathroom?" But it can also be used in contrast to stopping, e.g. "Ten taxis passed by before one finally stopped for us."