Ce and Ces in French
So I'm getting really confused about when to use 'Ce' and when to use 'Ces' in French. I used to think that 'ce' was only used when the subject was singular but now I've seen the phrase 'ce sont' meaning these are which has really confused me. I would appreciate any help
Ce as a subject pronoun is invariable. It doesn't ever change (except for elision. Thus, "c'est" (from "ce est") and "ce sont".
For example, "c'est un chat sage" - "this is a wise cat". "Ce sont des chats sages" - "these are wise cats".
Ces is the plural masculine form of a demonstrative pronoun. It always modifies a particular word.
For example, "ce chat" - "this cat". "Ces chats" - these cats. "Ce chat est sage" - "this cat is wise". "Ces chats sont sages" - "these cats are wise".
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Here is how I get useful summary sheets:
When you look something up in Google, notice that right above the list of results, you see the following in grey text:
News | Images | Videos ...
To Get Summary Sheets:
Just click "Images" after searching for a grammar rule, and you'll get useful summary sheets. Then right click on the one you like, and choose "open link in a new tab". Then you can save it to your Google bookmark favorites.
To Get Worksheets:
I also try adding "worksheet" at the end of my search term and then clicking images to get helpful worksheets. Then right click on the image and choose "open link in a new tab". Then you can save it to your Google bookmark favorites.
You can follow the same procedure to get videos on the topic, just click "Videos" instead of "Images".
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Ces is the plural form of the demonstrative adjectives (ce, cet, cette, ces).
"ces" is with a noun, (ces livres, pluriel) "ce" with a noun (ce livre, singulier).... or with a verb (pluriel) ! (ce sont des livres)
Try these links :
like with many language rules, there are times where the normal rule doesn't apply. I don't have much to say about why the cases are how they are with out an example.
From what I've seen CE means "this", being masculine, i.e. "ce livre est cher" (CETTE would be the feminine form). CES is the plural form (these), being either masculine or feminine, i.e. "ces livres sont chers".
The thing is that CE (not CES) can also mean "they", and in this case you gotta understand the difference between C'EST (it is, he is, she is) and IL EST (he is, it is) first because whatever applies to C'EST (singular) will be applied to CE (plural):
C'est un grand garçon (not "Il est...") - He's a tall boy
Ce sont de grands garçons (not "Ils sont") - They're tall boys
Why the heck not "il est" and "ils sont"? Learn first when to use C'EST and IL EST, as mentioned, and you'll know whether you should go with C'EST or IL/ELLE EST, as well as CE SONT (your question) or ILS/ELLES SONT, and then profit!
I'm still learning French, though, so whoever is more proficient than me, feel free to correct me.