Greek Grammar Basics 1

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A list of verbs used in this skill and variations between conjugations are given below:

be - είμαι

drink - πίνω

eat - τρώω

Definite Articles Definite articles in Greek are equivalent to the English word ''the'', however, in Greek, they vary depending on the gender and number of the word that follows.

NOTE the gender refers to the word ... NOT... to the person or object involved. For example, "the girl" το κορίτσι and "the boy" το αγόρι are neuter but "the chair" η καρέλα is feminine....

Greek like Polish, Russian, and many other languages uses 3 grammatical genders to describe nouns. While English though, has «the» for every gender and number, Greek has six possible articles.

Number and Gender in Nominative Article Example Singular masculine ο ο άντρας = the man Plural masculine οι οι άντρες = the men Singular feminine η η γυναίκα = the woman Plural feminine οι οι γυναίκες = the women Singular neuter το το παιδί = the child Plural neuter τα τα παιδιά = the children Cases in Masculine and Feminine Gender Modern Greek has four cases in each number (Nominative, Genitive, Accusative, Vocative). The suffix shows the changes.

Cases and Numbers Example Masculine Example Feminine Nominative singular ο άντρας = the man η γυναίκα = the woman Genitive singular του άντρα = of the man της γυναίκας = of the woman Accusative singular τον άντρα = the man τη γυναίκα = the woman Vocative singular άντρα = man γυναίκα = woman Nominative Plural οι άντρες = the men οι γυναίκες = the women Genitive plural των αντρών = of the men των γυναικών = of the women Accusative Plural τους άντρες = the men τις γυναίκες = the women Vocative Plural άντρες=men γυναίκες=women Cases in Neuter Gender Cases and Numbers Example Neuter 1 Example Neuter 2 Nominative singular το παιδί = the child το βιβλίο = the book Genitive singular του παιδιού = of the child του βιβλίου = of the book Accusative singular το παιδί = the child το βιβλίο = the book Vocative singular παιδί = child βιβλίο = book Nominative Plural τα παιδιά = the children τα βιβλία = the books Genitive plural των παιδιών= of the children των βιβλίων = of the books Accusative Plural τα παιδιά = the children τα βιβλία = the books Vocative Plural παιδιά = children βιβλία = books INDEFINITE ARTICLES For the Indefinite articles (A/AN/ONE in English) Greek has 3 possible types according to the gender of the word that follows.

Singular Masculine Singular Feminine Singular Neuter NOMINATIVE: ένας μία or μια ένα GENITIVE: ενός μίας or μιας ενός ACCUSATIVE: ένα or έναν μία or μια ένα VOCATIVE: --- --- --- Examples:

Ένας ελέφαντας (masculine) = An / one elephant

Μία γάτα (feminine) = A / one cat

Ένα φίδι (neuter) = A / one snake

The indefinite articles ένας, μία, ένα can be omitted when:

The meaning of the sentence is general.

The subject of the sentence can only be one.

The number of subjects does not matter.


The cat is an animal - Η γάτα είναι ζώο.

These two are not

Examples: To BE

(Εγώ) είμαι = I am

(Εσύ) είσαι = you are (singular)

(Αυτός, αυτή, αυτό) είναι = he, she or it is

(Εμείς) είμαστε = we are

(Εσείς) είσαστε = you are(plural) (or είστε)

(Αυτοί, αυτές, αυτά) είναι =they are

Important note: the pronoun (Εγώ, εσύ not always needed.)

Pronouns Example 1st person singular εγώ = I εγώ τρώω = I eat 2nd person singular εσύ = you εσύ τρως = you eat 3rd person singular αυτός/αυτή/αυτό = he/she/it αυτός τρώει = he eats 1st person plural εμείς = we εμείς τρώμε = we eat 2nd person plural εσείς = you εσείς τρώτε = you eat 3rd person plural αυτοί/αυτές = they (masculine/feminine) αυτοί τρώνε = they eat Note that they has two types. If it refers to a group all males or male and female or its gender composition is unknown, αυτοί is used. If the group is composed of only females, αυτές is used instead.

Keep in mind that in Greek the personal pronoun (I, you etc) is not needed before the verb to define which person it is (as in English).

The verb ending shows the person so for example:

Πίνω I drink.

Πίνεις You drink (singular)

Πίνει He/She/It drinks.

Πίνουμε & πίνομε dial. We drink

Πίνετε You drink (plural

Πίνουν & πίνουνε oral. They drink

Spelling Note The word άντρας can also be written as άνδρας. This can happen in all types of this word, just by replacing the letter τ with the δ.

1 week ago

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Wenn du beim Griechischkurs angemeldet bist, findest du die Erläuterungen hier: unter dem Reiter "Tips and Notes".

1 week ago
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Sorry, aber ich scheine auf der Leitung zu stehen.

Mein Problem war, als ich die ersten Kronen im Spanisch-Kurs kam, dass ich dann nicht mehr auf die Erläuterungen/Tipps gekommen bin bzw. sie nicht mehr lesen konnte.

Daher habe ich im Griechisch-Kurs die Übungen noch nicht abgeschlossen. Wollte die Tipps kopieren und bei mir abspeichern, dachte aber, dass es anderen auch so gehen könnten, daher habe ich sie hier her kopiert und werde die fehlenden ebenfalls hier her kopieren.

Es sei denn, Du hast einen besseren Vorschlag.

Leider ist die Suchfunktion bei den Diskussionen alles andere als optimal. Das lange Suchen ermüdet meine Augen derart, dass ich keine Lust habe.

Jedenfalls Danke nochmal

1 week ago
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