Ultimate verbs guide + Verbs list

Verbs are very important when you study a language
In this post, I'll show you how to deal with Japanese verbs

Note : I'm not a professional teacher, i just like to share this with you cuz it helped me
Source : different sites from internet
Why didn't I just put links ? , Bcz most people wont go and check the links , Plus It'll be easier if you have it in one place , Plus Writing it again will help me in memorizing

Here we go !

Verb groups

Verbs in Japanese are divided into 3 groups
Group 1 , Group 2 , Group 3
They can be known from the ending of the verb

Group 1

Group 1 verbs always end in
- う

Group 2

Group 2 verbs always end in
With , I or E syllable before the RU
Like , Taberu

Group 3

Group 3 has 2 verbs
-する to do
-来る (kuru) to come
Note , Verbs that end with these verbs are counted too
Like 勉強する (benkyou suru) To study


Some verbs end with る with i or e syllable before it , but they belong to group 1
Like :
切る . kiru . to cut
走る . hashiru . to run
知る . shiru . to know
入る . hairu . to enter

Check this verb list so you understand the verbs written in the explanation

Verb Romaji Meaning
出る deru to come out
捨てる suteru to throw away
食べる taberu to eat
見る miru to see
話す hanasu to speak
書く kaku to write
泳ぐ oyogu to swim
遊ぶ asobu to play
死ぬ shinu to die
切る kiru to cut (group 1)
買う kau to buy
持つ motsu to hold
走る hashiru to run
着る kiru to wear (group 2)
答える kotaeru to answer
立つ tatsu to stand
知る shiru to know
言う iu to say
会う au to meet
歌う utau to sing
行く iku to go
寝る neru to sleep
する suru to do
来る kuru to come
勉強する benkyou suru to study
飲む nomu to drink

Now you're done with verbs groups
Let's take some verb conjugations

Making the verb polite

The polite form of the verb makes the verb polite
You'll notice that duolingo teaches the polite verb form

Let's start by making group one verbs polite

The first step , is To change the U syllable in the verb into I syllable

Then add -ます

Examples ? yes please

話す-->話します (hanasu-->hanashimasu)
持つ-->持ちます (motsu-->mochimasu)
行く-->行きます (iku-->ikimasu)
知る-->知ります (exception huh!) (shiru-->shirimasu)

Now lets jump on to group 2
To make group 2 verbs polite
First , remove the RU ending , and add ます

Examples? yes please

食べる-->食べます (taberu-->tabemasu)
見る-->見ます (miru-->mimasu)

Now let's make group 3 verbs polite
So group 3 has only 2 verbs
So memorize them cuz they're irregular

する-->します (suru-->shimasu)
来る-->来ます (kuru --> kimasu)

Examples? yes please
勉強する-->勉強します (benkyou suru --> benkyou shimasu)

Guess what , you've just hit 5 birds with one stone!!!!!!

-To make the verb in the polite negative
add ません instead of ます
食べません - i dont eat
-To make the verb in the polite past form
add ました instead of ます
食べました - i ate
-To make the verb in the Negative past polite
add ませんでした instead of ます
食べませんでした - i didnt eat
-To make it in the "let's" polite form
add ましょう instead of ます
食べましょう - let's eat

Making the normal (non polite) negative form

So lets start by group 1

The U syllable is changed into A syllable
But !!
Watch out ! there's an exception
When the verb ends in う , it's changed into わ not あ

After that , add ない

泳ぐ-->泳がない (oyogu-->oyoganai)
書く-->書かない (kaku-->kakanai)
買う-->買わない (kau-->kawanai)

Now lets do that for group 2

Simply , the RU ending is removed , and we add ない

食べる-->食べない (taberu-->tabenai)
見る-->見ない (miru-->minai)

Now group 3
They're irregular, memorize them
する-->しない (suru-->shinai)
来る-->来ない (kuru-->konai)

勉強する-->勉強しない (benkyou suru-->benkyou shinai)

Surprise!!* you've hit 2 birds with 1 stone
-To make negative past
add なかった instead
泳がなかった (oyoganakatta)
見なかった (minakatta)
勉強しなかった (benkyou shinakatta)

Now let's make the verbs in the past form !

group 1

Changing a group 1 from normal form to the past tense is difficult because we must break up the verb into four additional categories. These four categories depend on the last character of the verb. The table below illustrates the different sub-categories. In addition, there is one exception to the rules, which is the verb 行く


The exception 行く --> 行った (iku-->itta)

group 2

simply drop the る and add た

出る → 出た (deru-->deta)
捨てる → 捨てた (suteru-->suteta)

group 3

Memorize them
する-->した (suru-->shita)
来る-->来た (kuru-->kita)


That's all for that lesson
Thank you guys for reading

Wish me a good luck

-If you're a beginner to Japanese check that How to write in Japanese , Kanji List Grade 1 & 2

February 8, 2019


We've needed something like this since the course came out. Good on you, OP! Verbs are one of the easier things in Japanese (especially compared to some other languages) and I've always thought that the Duolingo course doesn't do a great job at teaching them. I got by just fine because I already knew how it worked, but if you're a beginner, god help you.

Also kinda like how this is proof that you can explain how to conjugate all Japanese verbs (with the exception of a few super-formal verbs like いらっしゃる, なさる, ござる, etc.) in the most frequently used forms in a not-too-long web post.

February 12, 2019

This discussion needs to be PINNED. Really hope duolingo has more articles like this.

February 9, 2019

can you create a classroom for japanese so you can assign things to me?

February 9, 2019

yea just wait

February 12, 2019

Yasss please

February 13, 2019

thanks this is amazing one up vote

February 8, 2019

Lulu thts really nice

February 9, 2019


February 11, 2019

arigato gozaimasu

February 9, 2019

TheLord2k1, I really appreciate and admire the effort you put into this post. Thanks a lot!

February 11, 2019

Thank you so much.

February 9, 2019

This is downright helpful! THANKS!!!

February 9, 2019

Many thanks! Sooo useful.

February 9, 2019

Very helpful post! Have an up vote. I would like to politely point out that you made a small typo in the romaji of おそぶ and 走る.

February 9, 2019

Oh lemme fix tht

February 11, 2019

If Im Not wrong; France also has 3 group of verbs. Anyway thx dude.

Btw group 1 and group 2 have both る. How do we differentiate between them?

February 10, 2019

By the syllable before the RU ending
If it's e or i , then it's group 2
But there are exceptions mentioned above

February 11, 2019

Thank you! I need to print it...

February 11, 2019

thank you so much!! :)

February 12, 2019

Incredibly helpful, here, have a few lingots.

February 14, 2019

This is a very helpful facts about Korean friend!

February 11, 2019
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