https://www.duolingo.com/Maria802525

Passato Prossimo with auxiliary verb "avere."

I needed further understanding than what Duolingo provides so I researched on internet and learned that with avere verbs always use ho, hai, ha, abbiamo, avete, hanno and the past participle of the main verb which usually ends in "o" such as "ha trovato" or "avete mangiato."

But in Duolingo exercises, avere verbs take on the qualities of an essere verb by using sono,sei,e,siamo,siete,sono and the past participle of the main avere verb also agrees in gender and number like essere verbs.

Example: La festa e cominciata oggi. Why is it not: La festa ha cominciato oggi. Sono aperti domenica. Why is it not: Hanno aperto domenica?

6 days ago

5 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/CivisRomanus

The choice of the right auxiliary is one of the well-known difficulties of the Italian language. You can find some guidelines here: https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/26213799

With regard to the agreement of the past participle, there are three main rules:

Summarizing the rules concerning clitics with compound tenses:

  • 1 If the auxiliary verb is avere, the past participle is invariable (unless rule no.3 applies):

(Io) ho trovato le chiavi. (trovato is invariable)

(Lei) ha trovato le chiavi. (trovato is invariable)

(Loro) hanno trovato le chiavi. (trovato is invariable)

  • 2 If the auxiliary verb is essere, the past participle agrees with the subject of the sentence:

La festa è cominciata oggi. (cominciata agrees with la festa)

Le vacanze sono cominciate oggi. (cominciate agrees with le vacanze)

  • 3 If the sentence includes a direct object clitic pronoun, the past participle agrees with the direct object of the sentence (i.e. with the direct object clitic pronoun itself), regardless of the auxiliary. This rule overrides rules no.1 and no.2:

(Io) ti ho visto. (visto agrees with ti, either a male person, or an object with a masculine noun)

(Io) ti ho vista. (vista agrees with ti, either a female person, or an object with a feminine noun)

(Io) li ho visti. (visti agrees with li, two or more male persons, or objects with a masculine noun)

(Io) le ho viste. (viste agrees with le, two or more female persons, or objects with a feminine noun)

(Voi) lo avete visto. (visto agrees with lo, either a male person, or an object with a masculine noun)

(Voi) la avete vista. (vista agrees with la, either a female person, or an object with a feminine noun).

5 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Maria802525

Thank you so much CivisRomanus! I appreciate your generous help!

5 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Dru_Morgan
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I learned recently of a simple rule that should work most of the time:

If you have a transitive verb, with an "object" you use the AVERE

If you have intransitive, with no direct object you use the ESSERE

ask yourself the question "Che cosa?" and if you have an answer - use AVERE

mangiare - mangiato - che cosa? il panino - HO mangiato il panino

arrivare - arrivato - che cosa? (niente) - SONO arrivato

Hope that helps a little

5 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/CivisRomanus

Unfortunately it is not that simple, because all transitive verbs take avere, but not all intransitive ones take essere, a good number of them take avere all the same:

uscire - uscito = che cosa? (niente) - SONO uscito

dormire - dormito = che cosa? (niente) - HO dormito (not SONO dormito)

ridere - riso = che cosa? (niente) - HO riso (not SONO riso).

5 days ago

https://www.duolingo.com/crubioa
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Watch this youtube video called The House of Essere. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWZpBOyMINY

4 days ago
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