Just before Valentine's day Duo broke my heart

Last year in March in decided I really wanted to learn Spanish and Portuguese. I found a Spanish teacher nearby. The first time we met she asked me if I already knew Duolingo or Memrise. I didn’t. She said it would be a good start to learn some words. So, that same day, 339 days ago precise, I looked up Duolingo and Memrise. Since my nickname has been Birdie for a long time and for other reasons, Duo and I were besties from the start.

First I started on my iPhone/iPad and I just did the exercises lesson per lesson. Then in June I got my first laptop and discovered that learning with a laptop was more efficiënt, and I discovered you could take tests/exams. That’s when my learning started to advance really fast. I added reversed trees and was really motivated to finish them all, and hence learn a lot. One day when I could not find the grammar boxes in Spanish on my laptop. I asked the forum for help and someone replied pointing out my profile in which I could exactly see which lessons were still open ( Once I saw my profile I got even more exited. I saw there were Halls of Fame and I was in them without even knowing how and why. It was funny and my motivation rose again.

In my opinion the Halls of Fame show who are the best language learners and I love seeing guys like “abba-s” and “EduMatOzone” going wild with their learning. On the other hand I also admire “Olja.” who says “De gestadige drup holt de steen :)”. She practices in a different pace, but worked through almost all trees. Respect!

However, as it turned out yesterday, there are some people who don’t like it that other people are better than them at language learning. They follow the “better” learners on their leaderboard, see that these learners gain more XP’s in a short(er) amount of time and then they complain to Duolingo that the system is not fair. Well, the system was fair. If you knew a language, you could take a placement test, a checkpoint test or test out a skill, which gave you all the points you would normally get by doing all the exercises.

As of this week Duolingo has succumbed to the nagging of the mediocre learner, who apparently himself was unable to do a test and, hence, gain more XP himself. Duolingo has let me know that:

"Earlier, we implemented a feature where users could level up in a skill and receive a large amount of XP. To make this more fair for all users, we are now limiting the maximum amount of XP you can earn from the following: Testing out of a skill: 20 XP Section or Checkpoint Test-out: 50 XP Placement Tests: 100 XP"

So, for everyone who knows a language already (a little bit) and loves to test it and make a nice and shiny golden tree: From now on your knowledge of a language will not be shown in the amount of XP you get. Let’s say you have a tree with 60 skills times 6 levels (is 360 tests), you will get 20 XP per test and therefore 7.200 XP is a golden tree. Forget level 25!

How can anyone, who still has a life next to Duolingo, ever reach level 25 in all languages? With the new rules it means you have to do a least 2.640 lessons in a tree with 60 skills to get to level 25 (30.000 XP). Let’s say you go fairly quick and do 20 lessons per hour. It means you have to spend 132 hours to get to level 25. Am I the only one who thinks this is absurd?

Anyways, as you can read, I am hugely disappointed that Duolingo gives in to people who can’t stand others being better at learning languages. Duo, is this really what you support? I want to give another shout out to one of the guys on my leaderboard “Art Burnap” who has on his profile “crazy enough to believe studying languages & cultures can help us get along better in today's world”. Art, man, I feel the same! And you are going bonkers this week with your XP and I just love it seeing you go up the rankings. Keep it up!

Unfortunately, you will not be seeing much of me anymore, as long as Duo doesn’t see the ridiculousness of his decision to cut (good) language learners on their XP’s, when they take tests. People should be rewarded for their knowledge, not for the time the spend on this app.

However, I will practice with Memrise, the Mimic Method, Fluent Forever, Unlimited Spanish, etc. and the many books I already have from various languages. Ohhh, yeah and I sing: last week “Mas que nada” and this week “Je veux” from Zaz (listen it, it is awesome, especially if you are learning French). Singing is a really nice way to learn languages!

Well, all the best to all of you. I hope to be in the mix one day again. Please, let me know if Duolingo changes his mind and gets back to the rewarding system it had up and until last Sunday.

February 14, 2019


I try and ignore the Golden and rewards. I find that Duolingo is a good tool but not can not be used exclusively. I’m at level 19 but am only through unit 3 on French. That’s because I try and spend two hours reading french or listening to french radio for every hour I spend in Duolingo. Getting through the tree isn’t really the goal - learning the language to B2 fluency is the goal. I like Duolingo for practice but my one complaint is the game aspect of it takes a person away from the stated purpose: to learn the language.

February 14, 2019

I completely agree with you! That's why "my broken heart" (figure of speech) is good. It makes me move on. I already realized that the game aspect in the beginning really helped me to advance my learning. However, the last few weeks, I was already feeling that I probably should focus on my learning with other tools, because I really want to be fluent in a lot of languages. The thing what kept me on Duo was that I got instant feedback on my progression via the XP's. Now, I won't get that XP-feedback anymore and therefore, I can move on.

February 14, 2019

This is stupid, and I’ve heard so many people complain that the test out feature is unfair, but it’s not. Some of us have real life experience in some languages and testing out and getting xp is just a reflection of work done and knowledge gained elsewhere.

But it sounds like Duo Gave in to a bunch of whiny kids who are mad that some people have gamed the gaming platform.

Rather than worry about stupid things like this, Duo should be working on fixing the myriad of technical issues that plague its platform and linguistic issues that matter.

February 14, 2019

Thanks, Scott. Like you, I cannot find one reason why the test out feature was unfair. Everyone could use it and gain XP's quicker. From now on XP's will be a sign of how much time is spend on the app, rather than it is a sign of how well you know the language. Nobody with some knowledge of a language, that is truly here for the language learning, will do a level 1 repeated exercise, just to get XP's.

For the ones who say: You don't do language learning for the Halls of Fame/to compete with others. I fully agree on that one too. I compete with myself and, if you make a game on learning languages, than in my opinion it should at its best give you a true indication on your level (and not on the time you spend on the app). ...not getting this written completely as I want. I hope readers get what I mean.

Anyway, your post is clear :-)

February 14, 2019

I completely agree that it is NOT in the least unfair. I have finished the Spanish tree several times over, so now I am just "testing-out" to regild my tree without having to go through the same lessons over and over again. Not to mention the fact that if you get four answers wrong you don't get ANY XPs whatsoever, even if the fourth mistake was done just at the very end (I know, because I have done it a few times, as I was trying to pay attention to something else while I was testing out and it did not work out so well) - so basically no recognition whatsoever for what you've done until that point AND no streak validation. It's like what you have done for the past x minutes did not exist.

Later edit - I don't care about the number of XPs anymore, I do care that it does not validate the streak if you don't test out or if for some external reason, like severed internet connection, you don't finish the test - as compared to a normal lesson, where my streak is validated even if I get just one answer right out of 10 ( as in I only do one question and then cancel the lesson and go back to the main page).

March 2, 2019


Quote: that it does not validate the streak

Your real problem is that your account data is corrupted!!!

No XP goal is set:

See your extended user profile:

  • daily_goal: NULL

You can set a new "coach goal" here:

Make sure that you upgrade your buggy Duolingo app version on Android or downgrade to a stable older version which does not contain that streak coach goal bug, as it has IMHO actually corrupted the "daily_goal" variable.

I have seen this behavior on 1-2 other user accounts in the past weeks.

Make sure that you report this bug with all related informations: Android OS version, Duolingo app version.

Mobile apps do not support the 1XP coach goal from the web and always forced you to overwrite with 10XP after the lesson.


Now I think I believe to finally understand why you can abort a normal lesson and get your streak validated.

Can you please include a screenshot from your DL Android app version from the coach goal?

Do new versions nowadays allow you to turn the streak off without any minimum 10XP goal?

If your account had set a minimum goal of 10XP, you actually would have to finish the normal lesson (all questions) to get the 10XP awarded and your streak saved.

Aborting it for any reasons (incl. technical things) won't get you any 10XP and you would be losing your streak if you do not start and finish another lesson!

March 3, 2019

@Thomas - Thank you for all your hard work, but it really wasn't necessary. I wasn't really complaining, merely giving arguments as to why getting more XPs in the test-out is not unfair. I am using the desktop version 95% of the time, but I am traveling a lot and I cannot take the desktop with me, so I use iOS on the go.

I know I don't have any goals set - back in the day when I started this account you did not need to, so I didn't. I actually didn't even know about it, until much later, when I didn't want to mess with this, because I read somwhere that if you reset your goal it will reset you streak and I already had quite a long streak.

I never have answered just one question, I would typically test-out a skill these days, but it is nice to know that the option is there, in case my internet provider decides to take a break :)

Thank you for trying to lend a helping hand, but I think I will leave well enough alone, as the streak is the only thing drawing me back to Duo :)

March 3, 2019


Simple solution: Use the web portal.

I have finished the Spanish tree several times over, so now I am just "testing-out" to regild my tree without having to go through the same lessons over and over again.

Why do you need the mobile app and tapping word banks then when you know Spanish better?

The mobile app looks to be way too easy with all the given hints.

You can even test-out Spanish level 9 (multiple checkpoints, quite a bunch of skills) on Android with the intro placement test without having ever learned Spanish (well ok, I had learned Portuguese for 9 months when I did it in 2017)!

Quote: as compared to a normal lesson, where my streak is validated even if I get just one answer right out of 10 ( as in I only do one question and then cancel the lesson and go back to the main page).

I am trying to understand what you do and want to help you but I don't get it.

Aren't you confusing this with "timed practice" where you gain 1XP per each question?

A normal lesson (e.g practice) on the web portal usually has up to 17-20 questions.
A sequential "crown session" of new staff trees (e.g Spanish, French tree8+12) on skills are a bit shorter.

To gain 10XP at the end of the session (when you click the last check/continue button):

You have to pass ALL previous questions.

If you abort the session or Duolingo terminates/resets because of any technical problem (server, Internet, etc.) you will be losing all partly progress and you would have to restart from zero...I might have to try and reproduce what you do but on Android (KOPlayer emu) I am using an older version (V3.72.2 / V3.80.2) which might behave differently than your newer app version.

Aborting a lesson typically won't save your streak.

So what is this magical Android app version you are using which behaves differently? ;)

March 3, 2019

Sorry, but I can't say I buy into the notion that those who can accumulate lots of XP via the test-outs are "better at learning languages." That may be true, but it's probably more common that they're just happier to use the test-out feature.

The ability for someone who knows a language well to join and then quickly make their way to level 25 by quizzing out of things is a relatively recent change. It only started last summer. It hadn't been like than before then, and Duolingo is in about its seventh year now. All the many users with significant language knowledge who joined during that time didn't have an option to get quick level 25s through test-outs. They probably just quizzed out of their existing languages for fun; got the owl at level 10 plus or minus a bit; contented themselves with that; and went about the business of learning the new language(s) that had motivated them to join in the first place.

From a pedagogical standpoint, I think the quiz-outs have been significantly over-used. For someone working actively on a single language or two (which is probably the vast majority of users), I think there's a strong temptation (b/c of gamification rewards) to quickly quiz-out based on little more than short-term memory. In my limited experience with the test-out system, this is actually very easy to do. But that's definitely not the best way to make use of what Duolingo offers. Hence, I'm not displeased to see the incentives for using the system reduced.

February 15, 2019

Thank you so much for this respons. As I wrote, I started using the "test-outs" last summer (when I bought my first laptop). The option was just there. I had no past experience without it. For me it was a huge supercharger to improve on the languages I wanted to learn. First there were Spanish and Portuguese, but when I found out you could do reversed trees and all kinds of different languages and test-out, I was on fire and set myself big goals. Thanks to the test-out I could quickly test large amounts of skills and switch between trees, and hence, I learned four languages the last six months (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian and French). I just loved the rewards.

But now I read all the reactions on my post and I understand that the game was not like this before I entered the "Duolingo"-scene, and that I was just spoiled with this "Lamborghini"-option. So, maybe you understand that since I only had experience with the Lamborghini-option, which served me big time, that I was disappointed when they took it away. However, thanks to your reaction (and the reactions of others here), I have more knowledge now, and I can understand why and how this decision has been made. I will still miss the option, but I am in peace :-)

February 15, 2019


Personally I always avoided testing out of anything even though I could easily do that for some languages, but I also know that by testing out I'm actually skipping some content and I may be missing something important. I enjoy my hard-earned almost-L24 in Spanish and I don't really want this journey to be over in just a few moments if I simply test out of a few crown levels.

I don't mind anyone else testing out, I know I would never be able to keep up with them, yet I don't feel like I need to. They still inspire me, but I'd rather take take it slow myself... (but that's just me:)

February 14, 2019

Hi Shadowofthemoon, just like you and as I wrote in my post: I am inspired by many people on Duolingo (the quotes they have, the way they progress, how they learn, etc.).

A question for you: If you were me, how would you approach Duolingo if you wanted to improve the 8th languages you already know (more or less) and you wanted to learn 20 more languages (this year)?

February 14, 2019

I alternate between six languages (plus my native) when I have visitors from these countries or when I travel; I'm hosting someone from France in about two weeks from now; I practice Dutch every spring in a memory of my very first and then two more visits to Gent, Belgium (and some very special people I met there); I practice German every winter when we have visitors from our sister-city in Germany; I speak Italian in summer when we have visitors from our sister-city in Italy, etc... this became my real-life spaced repetition and a chance to learn more from people I meet - they are my reason to remember these languages and my way to say "thank you" when there's nothing else I can do for them.

How would I learn 20 more languages in a year - frankly, I don't know, and I don't think I can, even though I enjoy learning, more than (almost) anything else. Technically, it takes two or three months per language to complete the tree without Google Translate, learning from my own mistakes, but then I would most likely need more visitors from these countries and maybe a nice book to read.

So, I focus a little bit more on the languages I can speak in my real life, but I don't really measure them with xp or levels, and I kind of take my time, not rushing through some other trees if I know there's no chance I can really use these languages at the moment. One day I'll meet another "beautiful stranger" and they will be my reason to really learn - I don't know - Chinese, Japanese...

I mean this has been my strongest motivation - I don't want to simply learn something just for the sake of it, but I want some beautiful reason, so I could always remember about it and I could tell myself that I learned French because of something or maybe I learned it for someone.

To sum it up: complete the tree, read a nice book, talk to people, but first and foremost, find a beautiful reason. An emotion that would drive you along the way, all the way.

This is not exactly what you were asking but maybe it makes some sense :)

February 14, 2019

This makes all the sense in the world to me and it is exactly why I learn languages (also with Mimic method and Fluent forever - I really want to sound like locals). My dream would be to live in 24 countries for one month each (so for 2 years), speak the languages of the locals, cook their food, dance and sing with them, learn from them and do some more research on human behavior. I just love people and (therefore) their languages, and Duolingo gave me the boost to take the first steps towards this dream.

February 15, 2019

Wow, really interesting!

In my case, I combine "playing" in Duolingo with "learning" in Duolingo.

I mean: I already know nine languages, and (I think) I don't "need" to learn them. That's the case of catalan, my native, and spanish (all catalans have a perfect skill of it) and other ones. Just for "playing", I recognize that I do those courses just to play and gain the "golden owl" (Xp are not important to me). As a part of the game, I try to solve everything as fast as possible. Just for fun!. That means using all (legitime) "skip", "test out", etc.

Then, I am really learning other languages. Some of them only in duolingo (Navajo, Hawaian), while other ones combined with online free resources (klingon, high valyrian, welsh,...). When I really want to learn, I try to avoid the "test out" (unless some particular cases).

I must say that it is possible to pass all tests without really learning a language, just using brute memory and some previous knowledge about other languages. Personally this happens specially in klingon and welsh. Even if I try to "really learn" how to say everything in that language, I am unable to "go out" of the memorized sentences. I can try to "imagine" how some sentence can be, applying the previous rules, but (as said) using only brute memory and "common sense".

It's the first time in my life that I study languages, so I never tested any method nor know them. I was learning while travelling by car for ten full years around Europe and some other countries (north africa, middle east...). While I was living in a language community, I used memory and practice to learn.

It's very nice to know people like you, Birdie, because we are a comunity with a lot of different persons with different lifes and opinions, but with even more things in common.

February 14, 2019

:-) I have a likewise approach: playing and learning. I learned so much from doing reversed trees and trees from German to Spanish, French to Portuguese, etc. The award of the golden owl made me progress much quicker. So, learning is the goal and the gamification pushed me to reach that goal. Just last week I set the goal to get all my Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Italian and English trees up to level 30 and completely golden. Now, with the new rules. My goals have become completely unreachable. So, therefore the disappointment.

Duo moved my cheese! I have to find new language learning goals, maybe better without awards ;-). By writing the post, I already got a little bit over it.

Some of the people on the leaderboard, like you, I really like to meet one day. For me learning new languages is really about connecting and getting to know other people better. It is so nice, if you are in Indonesia and you can just say a few words. People instantly smile so bright!

February 14, 2019

But nothing about getting the golden owl itself has changed, right? You can still quiz out of everything and attain it? And you can quiz out of everything to crown level 5 and enjoy the golden tree and the level 5 tree ring on Duome?

For most of those trees at least a golden tree would under the previous system have taken you well past level 25, so that part of the goal remains unaltered. And there is no level 30 ;)

February 15, 2019

You are so right :-). And with all the responses here on the forum and the very nice e-mail I got last night from the Duolingo-team, I now understand why they are changing the rules again (back to how it was - which I had no knowledge about). Maybe the first few days (when the old rules are completely reinstalled) I will still miss the huge rewards I got, but I will be happy and fine...even without nice and shiny golden trees :-D

February 15, 2019

Maybe duolingo should make a post about changes to XP? Cause I thought this was a bug.

I even reported it.

February 15, 2019

Yes, it would be nice if they communicate, and give a little explanation "why" they do things. The e-mails I received from the Duolingo-team were really nice and helped me to understand. If I had gotten some information upfront, I would never have been disappointed/"broken hearted" and, for sure, I would never have written this post. Although it is really fascinating to read peoples reactions, and to see how everyone has their own perspective (including myself, of course).

Good that you report! They really take notice of the reports! I like your suggestion of communicating upfront. This weekend I will write a nice e-mail back to Duolingo and suggest this, because I think they can avoid a lot of bug reports by giving a quick notice upfront (and save themselves - and us - some time).

February 15, 2019

Levels are meaningless. They represent the amount of effort you've done (and with the old test out feature, badly) rather than the amount you've learned and you know.

You get to Level 25 by earning 30,000 xp. You can earn 30,000 xp by completing the Basics 1 skill to five crowns, and then taking the practice lesson. You'll end up taking 3,000 Basics 1 lessons. You'll be able to tell the world that you're an apple in the language you're studying. But you won't know squat.

But you'll be Level 25.

Even after the change, you can get to Level 25 without knowing anything; it just changes how fast you can get there. I have no problem with the change to the amount of xp you get for testing out.

February 14, 2019

Hi Frederik, thanks for your reply. For me the XP's were a true sign of my knowledge of a language. Since I love languages and like to learn as many as possible, I don't just do lessons to get XP's. I test, see if I know my stuff, and if I do, I move on. If you tested a skill of 16 lessons, you got 160 XP's, which in my opinion gave a good picture of my knowledge. That reference point is completely gone now.

The only question that remains for the makers of Duolingo: Why make 25 levels and 85 trees and adjust the rules this week in a way that it becomes physically impossible for any human to finish all those trees at level 25? Because, that is what happened due to the change.

February 14, 2019

I couldn't agree more. And I need to preface this with a positive note that Duolingo has been a great language learning tool....

But, Duo is constantly moving the cheese and it's disorienting and annoying. I've always been into self study, and I'm always setting goals for myself, but Duo keeps moving the goal post, or taking away goals I've accomplished. The constant changes, the long lasting inconsistencies in web and mobile apps, and the general feeling that Duo just sort of throws stuff at the wall to see what sticks has on more than one occasion so alienated me that I've temporarily lost motivation and put down the app.

You can build on what you have without constantly resetting and completely changing things.

February 14, 2019

Is this the reason I now have to pay 20 lingots to test out of a section? Super lame. I am disappointed. I know Russian but have been using Duolingo to practice Ukrainian. The languages are super similar so I have been challenging myself by doing the test-out challenges. Now I have to join premium or use up my lingots to to do this, very disappointed.

February 15, 2019

iOS users have had to pay gems (what many of us have in lieu of lingots for many trees on iOS) to test out for quite a while. Test-outs on the web still seem to be free, however. Is that different for you?

February 15, 2019

Quote: Duolingo has let me know that:

"Earlier, we implemented a feature where users could level up in a skill and receive a large amount of XP. To make this more fair for all users, we are now limiting the maximum amount of XP you can earn from the following: Testing out of a skill: 20 XP Section or Checkpoint Test-out: 50 XP Placement Tests: 100 XP"

I tried it on the web portal for my Portuguese-German course (reverse tree) and tested it with Basics2 which was on the crown level2.

I got 100XP after I completed the test:

  • 100XP added to my daily XP graph (coach goal circle)
  • 100XP was added on top of the total XP gained German language (100 was subtracted to reach the next level)

Have you had asked staff about the IOS or Android mobile apps?

Quote: As of this week Duolingo has succumbed to the nagging of the mediocre learner

I do not find that the skill 20XP limitation is not already implemented on their web portal, at least not today.

February 15, 2019

Hi Thomas, it will be implemented pretty soon on the desktop version too...that's why I just went for the test-out again this morning - old habits die hard :-)

February 15, 2019

It has since been implemented on the desktop version as well.

April 5, 2019

I totally understand you. I set my own goal and use the test-out feature too, because I have my own pace of learning a new language and I hate wasting time on the repetition of something I already known well over and over again. I would rather use that time to learn from other sources outside Duolingo. Though I don't compete with others intentionally, I am happy to see others ahead of me in the leaderboard because those learners motivate me.

February 16, 2019

Scores are an illusion. Levels doubly so.

But I find them enjoyable illusions.

February 18, 2019

I agree that they should revert to the original counting system. Duolingo markets itself as "gamified learning" so we are faced with the rather counterintuitive question of why they are seeking to limit the "wins" users have instead of rewarding them even more.
On another note, in spite of this, I hope you won't give up on duolingo and here's a lingot!

April 5, 2019

The original system was quite different than the XP bonanza of the last 3/4 of a year or so. In rough terms it would have been like awarding 10 XP times the number of level 0 skills for one of the higher-level test-outs with no answer boxes. (I guess it may have been different than this before I joined; this is the way it was before last summer.)

April 5, 2019

Byebye Hall of Fame and being able to get there on a higher ranking section within the next 3-5 years :-)

At least I know that for now I won't continue any test-out of the EN->DE course (reverse tree) and remaining checkpoints / skills with this 20XP-50XP cap as it will drive me nowhere...

The German language flag levels and "daily progress XP" shown on and Duome German chart would collidate from the other PT->DE, FR->DE and SP->DE courses with the EN->DE course anyways...

But somehow you need to complete at least three trees to get on the Hall of Fame so it would have made sense to complete this longer tree without any XP cap.

April 5, 2019

Lrtward had the idea / was guessing that an older mobile app might still give you the old XP?$comment_id=31600073

Quote Lrtward: It's possible they're using an old version of an app and still getting insane XP for testing out.

Thanks for reminding me on this possibility, e.g with the Android mobile app V3.72.2 or V3.80.2.

I would have been interested to the checkpoint or skill test-out for the English->German reverse course to get the 3rd owl for the Duome golden list and to be also listed in the Hall of Fame.

Without any "real XP" (and not a 20XP test cap) I can not benefit really anything from this English course and I also could not get access to Duome's xp HoF.

Only problem I now have is:
How the heck do I turn OFF Android (KOPlayer emulator) tapping and enable 100% typing (like on the web portal)?
I heard that only the IOS app shall supports this toggle keyword option!?!

I will not "cheat" for any other courses / languages, I promise :-)

And no, I am not in a club oder League for the English->German course, so nobody will complain.

With the 20-50XP test cap all the time would IMHO be basically (almost) "wasted" to continue the EN->DE course!

April 6, 2019

One of the reasons why this change is coming are probably the club and leagues complains from users about the competition and "cheating" by users who test-out or do intro placement tests.

"Silver League: What is it?":$from_email=comment&comment_id=30899892

Quote: adam606139
The cheating is really demoralizing. I try hard and then see that some are getting 10,000 xp a day. It really just takes the competitive spirit out of it. I have gotten around 1000 on heavy use days and even 2,000 one time. The 2,000 was when I tested out of some things, but I thought that testing out didn't give you xp at that time. It made me feel bad for doing it because I didn't realize it was upping my score on the leader board. Either way the cheaters should be routed out and given a time out. I think 500-1000 xp a day should dang near give you top 10 every time. I'm not asking for anything special just that the cheaters that get 4-10,000+ points in a couple hours every day get booted"

February 19, 2019

I understand the quoted post's concern, but I'm not sure it's easy to tell apart the cheating from people genuinely placing their progress in line with their command of a given language.

Maybe a repeated pattern of high scoring in multiple languages, but any criteria one might come up with will be arbitrary.

February 19, 2019
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