"You are a woman."
Translation:Tu es une femme.
This has me really confused. Speaking strictly about the singular usages, when should we say "Tu es..." and when should we say "Vous êtes..."? When I consider the context this would be used in, you wouldn't really go up to a stranger and say, "You are a woman." But you might a wife, sister or girlfriend as sort of a motivational statement. So that has me thinking it would be a more formal usage, and therefore should translate, "Vous êtes une femme." Am I reading too much into this?
Addressing a group: Vous êtes ... Here it is plural vous.
Addressing a child: Tu es ...
Addressing a group of children: Vous êtes ... Still plural since it is a group.
Addressing a family member or close friend: Tu es ...
Addressing several family members or close friends: Vous êtes ... since it is a group.
Addressing an official: Vous êtes ... (most likely) Here it is in its singular sense.
Addressing a group of officials: Vous êtes ... Here it is plural since it is a group.
Addressing a stranger: Vous êtes ... (most likely) Here it is in its singular sense.
Addressing a superior: Vous êtes ... (most likely - at least until s/he asks you to address her/him tu) Singular sense.
Addressing a collegue: Tu es or Vous êtes depending on the culture at that particular job.
yes, as by example the word "hospital" in English comes directly from the old French "hospital", but in modern French, the word is "hôpital", the "s" has been removed, and they put a ^ on the "o" to show the "s" has been removed. Several word like this, and a lot are in English also. Forest became forêt, etc...
"tu" is the informal singular "you", used when addressing a child, family member, or close friend. "vous" is either the plural "you" (obviously not in this sentence) or the formal singular "you", used when addressing a superior (your boss, for example), a stranger, an official, or your elders (especially if you're a child).
Keep in mind though that the rules are not fixed, different people may use them differently in the same situation.