"Teman saya Hindu dari Bali."
Translation:My friend is a Hindu from Bali.
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This sentence can cause ambiguous meaning. If you want to translated as My friend is a Hindu from Bali, you'd say 'Teman saya adalah seorang Hindu dari Bali'. If you stick with 'Teman saya Hindu dari Bali', it will closer to 'My friend Hindu from Bali', Hindu as a person name.
I believe they meant Hindu as a religion.
All your sentences are correct! But if I have to choose, I will go with 'Teman saya beragama Hindu dari Bali.' I just looked it up in Indonesian dictionary : Hindu also means people from Hind (India),so, i think it's safe to say we pick 'beragama Hindu' instead of 'seorang Hindu'.
"Seorang" sounds awkward to my ears, but "orang" works fine. -- It's the same as "saya orang Indonesia" (correct set phrase) v. "saya seorang Indonesia" (incorrect).
"Hindu" is primarily registered as a noun in KBBI, but native speakers often drop "orang (Hindu)" = "Hindu believer" or "beragama (Hindu)" = "practice Hindu". You cannot replace "orang" with "seorang".
The same shorten expression is observed in another Duolingo sentence "saya pilek" (I have a cold/got a runny nose). "Pilek" is a noun and a symptom, so the word-for-word translation is "I am a cold". Native speakers, however, often drop "menderita" (= to suffer).