Well... I responded "the band played yesterday" which is the actual correct response, and the alternate response given was "the band has played yesterday" which is actually incorrect English. That is not proper grammar. And to say "the band had played" would be "a banda tinha tocado" but to say that is less common than to just say "a banda tocou"
Would it be acceptable in this context: "The band has played yesterday...and today!" I have been speaking English all my life, and I am still unclear about the special restrictions of the present perfect tense. That is true; you would also need something else that happened in the past but after the band playing to use «tinha tocado»/"had played."
No, you would never say "the band has played yesterday." You would say "the band played yesterday." If you wanted to use "has" in that type of context you could say "the band has already played" like if someone arrived late and was asking if they missed the show, or "the band has played here before." I honestly do not know enough about the nomenclature of grammar to explain why that is, but there are really specific ways to phrase this in English. In Portuguese they have these conjugations, but in practice (or at least informal speech) they tend to be eschewed in favor of the simpler past tense conjugations. To say "the band has played yesterday" is 100% incorrect and would flag the speaker as not a native speaker. Though, you could say the band HAD played yesterday (which is more like tinha tocadao) and say like "the band had played yesterday for 3 hours, so they felt they really earned a trip to the bar to get hammered." English is weird!
The rule about English perfect tenses is that the action in perfect tense has to occur before a certain point in time. For present perfect tense, the point in time is right now. For past perfect tense, the point in time is in the past. Adverbs like 'already' and 'before' are often used to indicate a certain point in time for past perfect tense. The actual simple past tense verb that sets the context for using past perfect may not be in the same sentence, but it does occur somewhere in the context of the conversation or story. In present perfect, the simple present tense that sets the context may be implied by the circumstances.