Possessive - the struggles are real
It has taken a long time...but I think I finally get it!!
I think I can now translate both 'That is her book' and 'That book is hers' without taking ten attempts.
Congrats!! If you don't mind me asking, how did you do so!? I am still confused a bit on possessives in the Indonesian language.
Basically for the standard possessive adjective, you put pronoun after the noun like this:
My shoes = sepatu aku or sepatuku
Your shoes (2nd singular pronoun) = sepatu kamu or sepatumu
Your shoes (2nd plural pronoun) = sepatu kalian
His shoes = sepatu dia or sepatunya
Her shoes = sepatu dia or sepatunya
Their shoes = sepatu mereka
Our shoes (exclusive we) = sepatu kami
Our shoes (inclusive we) = sepatu kita
For possessive pronoun, basically like possessive adjective but use 'milik' (milik = belong to) instead of noun, like:
Mine = milikku or milik aku
Yours (2nd singular pronoun) = milikmu or milik kamu
Yours (2nd plural pronoun) = milik kalian
His = miliknya or milik dia
Hers = miliknya or milik dia
Theirs = milik mereka
Ours (exclusive we) = milik kami
Ours (inclusive we) = milik kita
Now I know people would ask, "but usually I heard people would say 'punyaku' instead of 'milikku' in real life?" I believe the standard should be "milik," but still it's okay to use "punya" (to have) even I use that too except when I try to be polite. I don't know if your answer would be accepted though.
Hopefully this makes sense. It does in my head but hard to explain. I have the Tii rule.
This is her book =
Ini bukunya or Ini buku dia
I know the translation starts with Ini (or itu in some cases) because of the Tii rule...T(T)his i(i)s I(i)ni....This is ini
For That book is hers
Buku itu miliknya
There is no Tii. As in there is no 'That is' so the translation doesnt start with Ini or Itu. Which is doesnt, its starts with the object ie buku or pensil. So if the sentence starts with 'That is' or "This is' then the translations starts with Itu or Ini.
Hope this helps. If not its just lots of practice ;)