Learning Latvian: Lesson 6, Accusative Case
This is the sixth Latvian lesson. If you want to see previous lessons, use directory, if you don't remember/forgot some words, use dictionary. Today we will learn the second of seven Latvian cases: Accusative.
- Unlike English, Latvian word order in sentences is more flexible, it is compensated by cases, which can show us what role the noun plays in the sentence. Until now we learned all words in the Nominative case (Nominatīvs), which is the "normal form" of the noun and is used to show that the noun is the subject in the sentence. Accusative case (Akuzatīvs), on the other hand, is used to make a noun the object in the sentence.
- The difference between cases is the ending of a noun. Normally, all Latvian nouns have one of these endings: -s, -š, -is, -us, -a, -e. There are also a few nouns that don't end in any of those, but they are the most simple ones: they don't decline.
- Latvian nouns are divided into six declension groups by their ending and gender and, save for very few exceptions, they all decline by those groups.
- 1st declension is masculine nouns that end with -s or -š, for example, zēns.
- 2nd declension is masculine nouns that end with -is, for example, ezis.
- 3rd declension is masculine nouns that end with -us, for example, tirgus.
- 4th declension is feminine nouns that end with -a, for example, mašīna.
- 5th declension is feminine nouns that end with -e, for example, meitene.
- 6th declension is feminine nouns that end with -s, for example, valsts.
- As you can see, if a noun ends with -š, -a or -e there is no doubt which declension they are. If, however, a noun ends with -s you'll have to find out whether it is masculine or feminine.
-Here's the table of changes from nominative to Accusative:
- A few observations:
- The plural forms of all masculine verbs are the same
- But, as you can see, letter z in ezis changes to ž in the plural. This is called līdzskaņu mija and will be covered a bit later.
- Besides nouns, adjectives are also declined: both masculine and feminine singular changes to -u in Accusative.
- Dot - to give (es dodu, tu dod, viņš dod, mēs dodam, jūs dodat, viņi dod)
- Gribēt - to want (es gribu, tu gribi, viņš grib, mēs gribam, jūs gribat, viņi grib)
- Pirkt - to buy (es pērku, tu pērc, viņš pērk, mēs pērkam, jūs pērkat, viņi pērk)
Es gribu skaistu ezi. - I want a beautiful hedgehog.
Viņš pērk jaunu mašīnu. - He is buying a new car.
Mēs dodam dīvainu tirgu. - We give a strange market place.
Viņas pērk valstis. - They buy countries.
Ēži grib zēnus. - Hedgehogs want boys.
Vai tu dod mašīnas? - Do you give cars?