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Apa, Siapa, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Question word 'apa' has two different roles:
-1) Change declarative sentence into an interrogative sentence.
-2) Replace the item or thing that is being asked for.

-1) Change declarative sentence into an interrogative sentence.
By adding 'apa/apakah' at the beginning of the sentence, a declarative sentence is turned into an interrogative question.
These are yes/no questions.
Apa = Apakah = 'What', ('apakah' is more formal).
Example:
(113a) Dia sudah datang.
(113b) Apa/Apakah dia sudah datang ?
(114a) Rudy akan ikut.
(114b) Apa/Apakah Rudy akan ikut ?
(115a) Kausnya akan dibawa ke pengadilan.
(115b) Apa/Apakah kausnya akan dibawa ke pengadilan ?

-2) Replace the item or thing that is being asked for.
'apa' can be positioned in the same place as the thing that you're asking for.
'apa' simply replaces this thing/object, and the sentence structure remains the same.
Example:
(116a) Yusyanti membeli mobil.
(116b) Yusyanti membeli apa ?
(117a) Pak Tampu memilihara ikan.
(117b) Pak Tampu memilihara apa ?

If 'apa' is moved to the beginning of the sentence, 'yang' is added, and the sentence structure after the 'yang' changes into the passive voice.
(116a) Yusyanti membeli mobil.
(116b) Yusyanti membeli apa ?
(116c) Apa yang dia beli ? <== (passive type 2)

(117a) Pak Tampu memilihara ikan.
(117b) Pak Tampu memilihara apa ?
(117b) Apa yang dipelihara Pak Tampu ? <== (passive type 1)

'apa' and 'siapa', the differences:
(1) 'apa' refers to objects, things and animals, while 'siapa' refers to humans.
(2) 'apa' can function as a question marker for a sentence, while 'siapa' replaces a noun in a sentence.

See examples below:

-1) 'Siapa' can change the [Object] without changing the word order, as long as 'siapa' takes the same position as the original [Object].
Example:
(124) Ibu mencari Pak Dahlan. ==> Ibu mencari siapa ? (S-P-O)
(125) Dia mencubit Tini. ==> Dia mencubit siapa ? (S-P-O)

-2) If 'siapa' changes the [Object] and is moved to the beginning of the sentence, the sentence structure changes.
'siapa' becomes the [Predicate], followed by the [Subject] in the form of a 'yang' clause, a passive structure.
Example:
(126) Ibu mencari siapa ? ==>(S-P-O)
(126b) Siapa(kah) yang ibu cari ? ==> (P-S) ==> (passive type 2)
(127) Dia mencubit siapa ? ==>(S-P-O)
(127b) Siapa yang dia cubit ? ==> (P-S) ==> (passive type 2)

-3) If the [Subject] of the sentence starts with 'yang', particle '-kah' cannot appear after the [Predicate].
Example:
(128s) Siapakah yang menangis ? ==> (P-S)
(128b) Yang menangis siapa ? ==> (S-P)
(128c) Yang menangis siapakah ? <== tidak gramatikal

(129a) Siapakah yang menulis laporan itu ? ==> (P-S)
(129b) Yang menulis laporan itu siapa ? ==> (S-P)
(129c) Yang menulis laporan itu siapakah ? <== tidak gramatikal

-4) 'Siapa' can change the [Subject] and take the position at the beginning of the sentence as a [Predicate] with the same word order. However, 'yang' has to be used here.
Example:
(130a) Yusyanti membeli mobil. ==> (S-P-O)
(130b) Siapa yang membeli mobil ? ==> (P-S)

(131a) Pak Tampu minta ikan. ==> (S-P-O)
(131b) Siapa yang minta ikan ? ==> (P-S)


Translation of declarative sentences:
(113a) Dia sudah datang. = He has already come.
(114a) Rudy akan ikut. = Rudy will come along.
(115a) Kausnya akan dibawa ke pengadilan. = His shirt will be taken to the court (courthouse).
(116a) Yusyanti membeli mobil. = Yusyanti buys a car.
(117a) Pak Tampu memilihara ikan. = Pak Tampu raises fish.
(124) Ibu mencari Pak Dahlan. = Mother is looking for Pak Dahlan.
(125) Dia mencubit Tini. = He pinched Tini.


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.2.3.3.1. Apa dan Siapa.
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 9.6.2.3. Kalimat Interogatif.

March 15, 2019

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