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Apa, Siapa, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Question word 'apa' has two different roles:
-1) Change declarative sentence into an interrogative sentence.
-2) Replace the item or thing that is being asked for.

-1) Change declarative sentence into an interrogative sentence.
By adding 'apa/apakah' at the beginning of the sentence, a declarative sentence is turned into an interrogative question.
These are yes/no questions.
Apa = Apakah = 'What', ('apakah' is more formal).
Example:
(113a) Dia sudah datang.
(113b) Apa/Apakah dia sudah datang ?
(114a) Rudy akan ikut.
(114b) Apa/Apakah Rudy akan ikut ?
(115a) Kausnya akan dibawa ke pengadilan.
(115b) Apa/Apakah kausnya akan dibawa ke pengadilan ?

-2) Replace the item or thing that is being asked for.
'apa' can be positioned in the same place as the thing that you're asking for.
'apa' simply replaces this thing/object, and the sentence structure remains the same.
Example:
(116a) Yusyanti membeli mobil.
(116b) Yusyanti membeli apa ?
(117a) Pak Tampu memilihara ikan.
(117b) Pak Tampu memilihara apa ?

If 'apa' is moved to the beginning of the sentence, 'yang' is added, and the sentence structure after the 'yang' changes into the passive voice.
(116a) Yusyanti membeli mobil.
(116b) Yusyanti membeli apa ?
(116c) Apa yang dia beli ? <== (passive type 2)

(117a) Pak Tampu memilihara ikan.
(117b) Pak Tampu memilihara apa ?
(117b) Apa yang dipelihara Pak Tampu ? <== (passive type 1)

'apa' and 'siapa', the differences:
(1) 'apa' refers to objects, things and animals, while 'siapa' refers to humans.
(2) 'apa' can function as a question marker for a sentence, while 'siapa' replaces a noun in a sentence.

See examples below:

-1) 'Siapa' can change the [Object] without changing the word order, as long as 'siapa' takes the same position as the original [Object].
Example:
(124) Ibu mencari Pak Dahlan. ==> Ibu mencari siapa ? (S-P-O)
(125) Dia mencubit Tini. ==> Dia mencubit siapa ? (S-P-O)

-2) If 'siapa' changes the [Object] and is moved to the beginning of the sentence, the sentence structure changes.
'siapa' becomes the [Predicate], followed by the [Subject] in the form of a 'yang' clause, a passive structure.
Example:
(126) Ibu mencari siapa ? ==>(S-P-O)
(126b) Siapa(kah) yang ibu cari ? ==> (P-S) ==> (passive type 2)
(127) Dia mencubit siapa ? ==>(S-P-O)
(127b) Siapa yang dia cubit ? ==> (P-S) ==> (passive type 2)

-3) If the [Subject] of the sentence starts with 'yang', particle '-kah' cannot appear after the [Predicate].
Example:
(128s) Siapakah yang menangis ? ==> (P-S)
(128b) Yang menangis siapa ? ==> (S-P)
(128c) Yang menangis siapakah ? <== tidak gramatikal

(129a) Siapakah yang menulis laporan itu ? ==> (P-S)
(129b) Yang menulis laporan itu siapa ? ==> (S-P)
(129c) Yang menulis laporan itu siapakah ? <== tidak gramatikal

-4) 'Siapa' can change the [Subject] and take the position at the beginning of the sentence as a [Predicate] with the same word order. However, 'yang' has to be used here.
Example:
(130a) Yusyanti membeli mobil. ==> (S-P-O)
(130b) Siapa yang membeli mobil ? ==> (P-S)

(131a) Pak Tampu minta ikan. ==> (S-P-O)
(131b) Siapa yang minta ikan ? ==> (P-S)


Translation of declarative sentences:
(113a) Dia sudah datang. = He has already come.
(114a) Rudy akan ikut. = Rudy will come along.
(115a) Kausnya akan dibawa ke pengadilan. = His shirt will be taken to the court (courthouse).
(116a) Yusyanti membeli mobil. = Yusyanti buys a car.
(117a) Pak Tampu memilihara ikan. = Pak Tampu raises fish.
(124) Ibu mencari Pak Dahlan. = Mother is looking for Pak Dahlan.
(125) Dia mencubit Tini. = He pinched Tini.


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.2.3.3.1. Apa dan Siapa.
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 9.6.2.3. Kalimat Interogatif.

March 15, 2019

2 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lara368282

Thanks so much for this explanation! For the word 'memilihara', is it supposed to be 'memelihara'? Since the root word is 'pelihara' and you have translated the passive as 'dipelihara', and the dictionaries tend to spell it 'memelihara', I am just wondering. Thanks very much


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/aarspar

Yes, it should be "memelihara". I think "memilihara" is just a typo.

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