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https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Rick392366

Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

An adjective can function as a noun modifier, a predicate or an adverbial complement.

The adjective is placed after the noun it modifies:
Contoh:
Saya minum kopi manis. = I drink sweet coffee.
Tini punya kucing kecil. = Tini has a small cat.
Tono suka mobil besar. = Tono likes big cars.

If within a noun phrase, a noun is followed by an adjective and there is no other modifier, then 'yang' can be included.
Contoh:
Saya minum kopi manis. = I drink sweet coffee.
Saya minum kopi yang manis. = I drink sweet coffee.
Tini punya kucing kecil. = Tini has a small cat.
Tini punya kucing yang kecil. = Tini has a small cat.

If a noun is modified by more than one adjective, then the conjunction word 'yang' is usually used:
Contoh:
Saya minum kopi panas yang manis. = I drink hot sweet coffee.
Tini punya kucing kecil yang lucu. = Tini has a funny little cat.
Tono punya mobil tua yang murah. = Tono has a cheap old car.

If a personal pronoun is part of the noun phrase, 'yang' can also be included.
However the 'yang' part changes position and is moved to the end of the phrase.
What comes after the 'yang' part is not limited to an adjective or another modifier, it can also be a 'yang' clause.
Contoh:
Kopi panas saya = Kopi saya yang panas = My hot coffee
Mobil tua saya = Mobil saya yang tua = My old car

Kopi saya yang panas yang baru saya pesan belum digulai.
My hot coffee that I just ordered has not yet been sweetened. (no sugar is added)

Below is a formula about the word order in a noun phrase [FN].

(a) [nomina + adjektiva + persona + penunjuk]
buku merah saya ini
anak nakal dia itu
celana kotor mereka itu

(b) [nomina + persona + yang + adjektiva + penunjuk]
buku saya yang merah ini
anak dia yang nakal itu
celana mereka yang kotor itu

(a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
(b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner

The noun usually comes first in a noun phrase.
An exception to this rule is when the noun is modified by something that indicates a quantity (adjective/numeralia/classifier).
(c) [FN] = numeralia + classifier + noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
Contoh:
Tini punya kucing kecil. = Tini has a small cat.
Tini punya sepuluh ekor kucing kecil. = Tini has ten small cats.
Tini punya banyak kucing kecil. = Tini has many small cats.

Tono punya mobil tua yang murah. = Tono has a cheap old car.
Tono punya tiga (buah) mobil tua yang murah. = Tono has three cheap old cars.

Please note that the noun is not reduplicated when the quantity is mentioned.
sepuluh kucing (instead of 'sepuluh kucing-kucing').
banyak kucing (instead of 'banyak kucing-kucing').


An adjective can also function as a 'predicate' (or adverbial complement) of a sentence, and as such it is negated with 'tidak'.
Contoh:
Kopi saya panas. = My coffee is hot.
Kopi saya tidak manis. = My coffee is not sweet.

Kucing Tini kecil = Tini's cat is small.
Kucing Tini tidak besar. = Tini's cat is not big.

Mobil Tono murah. = Tono's car is cheap.
Mobil Tono tidak mahal. = Tono's car is not expensive.


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 5. Adjektiva.
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.1.6. Frasa Nominal.

March 15, 2019

11 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/ryanisayori

terisma kasih


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/samousa5

Nice explanation


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/trinonsense

I have a slight difference in english explanation for usage of "yang" before an adjective. My interpretation is the use of "yang" emphasizes the adjective that is modifying.

Contoh:

Saya minum kopi manis. = I drink sweet coffee.

(original) Saya minum kopi yang manis. = I drink sweet coffee.

(my interpretation) Saya minum kopi yang manis = I drink coffee that is sweet.

(original) Saya minum kopi panas yang manis. = I drink hot sweet coffee.

(my interpretation) Saya minum kopi panas yang manis. = I drink hot coffee that is sweet

(original) Tini punya kucing kecil yang lucu. = Tini has a funny little cat.

(my interpretation) Tini punya kucing kecil yang lucu. = Tini has a little cat that is funny.

I think sentences with and without "yang" are not entirely interchangeable. The use of "yang" adds nuance to the characteristics to the noun that the sentence is are describing.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/KyrieDomineJesus

Please, can someone give the translation for the example phrases of [FN] (a) and (b)?

Buku merah saya ini.

My red book is here? This is my red book?

What happens, if you changed the word order around?

Ini buku merah saya. Buku merah ini saya. Buku ini yang merah saya. Buku saya ini yang merah.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/akhtarsane

Buku merah saya ini means "This is my red book" , then

Ini buku merah saya = It's my red book

Buku merah ini saya = The red book is mine

Buku ini yang merah saya = The red book is mine

Buku saya ini yang merah = My book is red


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Ryan_Thomas12

As a native Indonesian speaker, only the second sentence is correct for me but the rest sentences don't make any sense. Although the last one could be possible in spoken Indonesian.


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AgoFeitosa0

Aka kabar?! I would suggest that: Buku ini yang merah saya = This red book is mine


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Nasi_Kuning

A very thorough explanation, terima kasih amigo!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/thuis12

Terima kasih!


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/slamets

Most explanation is great, but I have a problem with explanation above suc as ; I drink sweet coffe. In this explanation, an adjective is placed after noun, that is making me up set. I think, the correct is an adective is placed before noun, it not after but before. thank you.

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