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Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum

An adjective can function as a noun modifier, a predicate or an adverbial complement.

The adjective is placed after the noun it modifies:
Contoh:
Saya minum kopi manis. = I drink sweet coffee.
Tini punya kucing kecil. = Tini has a small cat.
Tono suka mobil besar. = Tono likes big cars.

If within a noun phrase, a noun is followed by an adjective and there is no other modifier, then 'yang' can be included.
Contoh:
Saya minum kopi manis. = I drink sweet coffee.
Saya minum kopi yang manis. = I drink sweet coffee.
Tini punya kucing kecil. = Tini has a small cat.
Tini punya kucing yang kecil. = Tini has a small cat.

If a noun is modified by more than one adjective, then the conjunction word 'yang' is usually used:
Contoh:
Saya minum kopi panas yang manis. = I drink hot sweet coffee.
Tini punya kucing kecil yang lucu. = Tini has a funny little cat.
Tono punya mobil tua yang murah. = Tono has a cheap old car.

If a personal pronoun is part of the noun phrase, 'yang' can also be included.
However the 'yang' part changes position and is moved to the end of the phrase.
What comes after the 'yang' part is not limited to an adjective or another modifier, it can also be a 'yang' clause.
Contoh:
Kopi panas saya = Kopi saya yang panas = My hot coffee
Mobil tua saya = Mobil saya yang tua = My old car

Kopi saya yang panas yang baru saya pesan belum digulai.
My hot coffee that I just ordered has not yet been sweetened. (no sugar is added)

Below is a formula about the word order in a noun phrase [FN].

(a) [nomina + adjektiva + persona + penunjuk]
buku merah saya ini
anak nakal dia itu
celana kotor mereka itu

(b) [nomina + persona + yang + adjektiva + penunjuk]
buku saya yang merah ini
anak dia yang nakal itu
celana mereka yang kotor itu

(a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
(b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner

The noun usually comes first in a noun phrase.
An exception to this rule is when the noun is modified by something that indicates a quantity (adjective/numeralia/classifier).
(c) [FN] = numeralia + classifier + noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
Contoh:
Tini punya kucing kecil. = Tini has a small cat.
Tini punya sepuluh ekor kucing kecil. = Tini has ten small cats.
Tini punya banyak kucing kecil. = Tini has many small cats.

Tono punya mobil tua yang murah. = Tono has a cheap old car.
Tono punya tiga (buah) mobil tua yang murah. = Tono has three cheap old cars.


An adjective can also function as a 'predicate' (or adverbial complement) of a sentence, and as such it is negated with 'tidak'.
Contoh:
Kopi saya panas. = My coffee is hot.
Kopi saya tidak manis. = My coffee is not sweet.

Kucing Tini kecil = Tini's cat is small.
Kucing Tini tidak besar. = Tini's cat is not big.

Mobil Tono murah. = Tono's car is cheap.
Mobil Tono tidak mahal. = Tono's car is not expensive.


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 5. Adjektiva.
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.1.6. Frasa Nominal.

March 15, 2019

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