r[skill 5] Food
Link : loom ladder | Prev : Common Phrases | skill |Next : Animals | note: click on blue text for audio or links. ( note. if you hold down the " ctrl " button and " left click " it will open up the related link/audio in a separate tab. Thus keeping this one open here.)
- Preposition : A preposition is a word which precedes a noun (or a pronoun) to show the noun's (or the pronoun's) relationship to another word in the sentence.
Suggestion: As you learn these nouns, along with their article, also look at how you say the words, and how they are spelled. It is a very good thing to spend some time on this, and work out some of the spelling patterns that are associated with certain pronunciations.
2. Nouns : It is important to learn the article with the noun - to identify whether a noun is male or female. That is why when an elision occurs, I use the general article "un / une", so that it is clear whether the noun is male or female.
- l'alcool : the alcohol,
Je ne bois pas d'alcool : I don't drink alcohol
Un petit alcool? : A shot of alcohol?
- la baguette ♫ : the baguette
- la banane / une banane ♫ : the banana
- le beurre ♫ : the butter (^1-see note below)
- la bière ♫ : the beer. Notice the ' è ' ♫ . This is l'accent grave (m). This ' è ' ♫ sound is important to remember.
- la boisson : the drink
- le bonbon / les bonbons : the candy-sweet-lolly / the candies-sweets-lollies
- le café ♫ : the coffee. Note the "~ é " ♫. This is the sound the e with this accent on it makes. It is well worth remembering this. It is called a l'accent aigu ♫ . Also note that when a ' c ' is followed by a ' a ' or and ' o ', it says its hard ' k ' like sound. When it is followed by ' e ' , ' i ' or ' u ', or is 'ç', it says its soft ' s ' sound. This 'ç' is called la cédille ♫ .
- la carotte : the carrot
- la confiture : the jam
- la crêpe : the crepe/pancake
- la cuisine ♫ : the cooking
- l'eau ♫ / une eau ♫ / de l'eau : the water, a water. (^1-see note below)
- le fromage ♫ : the cheese. Note the ' g ' here says its soft sound, as it is followed by an 'e'. When a ' g ' is followed by an ' e ' , ' i ' , it says its soft sound.
- le gâteau ♫ : the cake. Note here the ' g ' says its hard sound, as it is followed by an ' a '. When a ' g ' is followed by an ' a ' or and ' o ', it says its hard sound. -l'huile : the oil
- le jus : the juice
- le lait ♫ / du lait : the milk / some milk
- l'œuf / un œuf ♫ / les œuf ♫ : the egg / an egg / the eggs
- un oignon / les oignons ♫ : an onion / the onions.
- le pain ♫ : the bread
- Le pétrole : the oil
- le poivre ♫ : the pepper
- le porc ♫ : the pig
- le poulet ♫ : the chicken
- le repas ♫ : the meal
- le raisin : the grapes, the grape (note le raisin can be plural)
- le riz ♫ : the rice
- la salade ♫ : the salad
- le sandwich ♫ : the sandwich
- le sel ♫ : the salt
- la soupe ♫ : the soup
- le sucre ♫ : the sugar. This ' c ' is not followed by a ' e ' ' i ' or ' u ', so it says its hard ' k ' sound. (^1-see note below)
- le thé ♫ : the tea. Note the "~ é " ♫, as mentioned above. Take note how it is different to how english say "tea". Also that "th" says "t". French do not have a "th" sound, as in the english word for " the ". Instead you use the consonant sound for " t "
- la tomate ♫ : the tomato
- la viande ♫ : the meat
- le vin ♫ : the wine
Also it is well worth reading Noun genders in French .
(^1-See below for the note referred to above )
.Assume a noun is male except for:
Female RULE 1: if it ends in
eAND IS NOT any of the male endings of:
- ~age, i.e. un barrage : a dam
- ~ble, i.e. un comptable : an accountant
- ~cle, i.e. un oncle : an uncle ; mon oncle : my uncle
- ~de, i.e. un hybride : a hybrid
- ~é, i.e. le café : the coffee, the cafe.
- ~ège, i.e. un piège : a trap
- ~ste, i.e. un cycliste : a cyclist
- ~vre, i.e. le livre : a book, and le poivre : the pepper, and un cuivre : a copper.
Female RULE 2: for "~ion / ~son" endings - it is female if the endings are :
- ~ion, i.e.: une éducation :an education
- ~son, i.e.: une maison : a house
THUS, for the nouns referred above as ^1 - you need to remember them, as they do not follow these generalized rules.
er: to like, to love | 1st verb group.
e| tu aim
es| il aim
e| elle aim
The verb "aimer" (and some other verbs stating a preference, a liking or a detest) is an exception to the rule where normally you would use de/du that you use an indefinite article where you would use none in the English language. See http://www.duolingo.com/comment/212945 ; http://www.duolingo.com/comment/196959 comment 282972
So when you use "aimer" (or "détester", "préférer", "adorer"...) in a sentence the object will have a definite article before it (so it's "J'aime le porc" or "Je déteste le football", for example).
ons| vous aimez | ils aim
ent| elles aim
re: to drink |3me (boire/croire etc - irregular for plural.)
s| tu boi
s| il boi
t| elle boi
t| on boi
vons| vous bu
vez| ils boi
vent| elles boi
er: to eat. | 1st verb group - Click here for mangeons explination.
e| tu mang
es| il mang
e| elle mang
ons| vous mang
ez| ils mang
ent| elles mang
Just a bit of input, another choice for bonbon would be candy. An American might not recognize the other two options very quickly. Overall I'm really impressed that somebody has thought to do this, and that it looks like you'll be doing this for all of the topics that you have a good understanding of. Good on ya!
Yes I am slowly going through all the topics - to try to see the 'hidden' knowledge of topic areas. And also to start to link up other peoples inspirational and helpful comments. Not just to regurgitate the 'words' in the lesson - but to put them in context, to embellish the sentences studied and give deeper insights. In this case it is mainly adding Le and La, and it will be the commencement of the study of du, de la, des It is a work in progress. And I am currently re-working over threads - to add in as much sound as possible. Also some are totally remade, or significant other references added, or topics broken up into smaller bits. I am hoping to also create several 'learn loom index pages' sorted by different criteria. But it is a passion :) To start to dig out all the gems from the pile of communications. ! Thank you for your input Andrealphus !
Also note, french , just like english, does have exceptions to how some things are said - in relation to how they are spelled. These 'pronunciation / spelling rules' are guidelines only.