https://www.duolingo.com/Rick392366

'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'me-kan' verbs are transitive (needing a direct object in the sentence).
'di-kan' verbs are the passive counterpart.
'me-kan' verbs can have different meanings, depending upon :
(1) suffix '-kan' is sometimes mandatory to form a verb.
(2) syntactical category of the [base word]
(3) specific semantical characteristics.

If [base word] = verb, or adjective and the '-kan' suffix is mandatory to form a verb :
meaning ==> to perform the action as mentioned by the [base word].
meaning ==> to let someone/something become like the [base word].
Examples:
kerja ==> mengerjakan ==> to work on something.
bicara ==> membicarakan ==> to talk about something.
hancur ==> menghancurkan ==> to destroy something.
bebas ==> membebaskan ==> to liberate someone/something.

If [base word] = noun :
meaning ==> to consider/to see object as the [base word].
meaning ==> to let the object become like the [base word].
Examples:
dewa ==> mendewakan ==> to deify someone/something.
akibat ==> mengakibatkan ==> to cause something.

If [base word] = noun that indicates a location.
meaning ==> to put 'the object' at the location of the [base word].
Examples:
penjara ==> memenjarakan ==> to put someone in prison.
pojok ==> memojokkan ==> to put something in the corner.
pinggir ==> meminggirkan ==> to move something to the side.

'me-kan' verbs with a 'causative' meaning.
meaning ==> to make something become like the [base word].
==> [base word] is usually an adjective.
Examples:
kuning ==> menguningkan ==> to make something to become yellow.
besar ==> membesarkan ==> to make something to become big.
kecil ==> mengecilkan ==> to make something to become small.
satu ==> menyatukan ==> to let something become one.

'me-kan' verbs with a 'benefactive' meaning.
meaning ==> to do something for somebody else.
Examples:
beli ==> membelikan ==> to buy something for someone else.
cari ==> mencarikan ==> to search something for someone else.
pilih ==> memilihkan ==> to choose something for someone else.
buat ==> membuatkan ==> to make something for someone else.

Although the 'benefactive' form occurs a lot, it's not the only meaning of this 'me-kan' affix.
The 'benefactive' nature of this verb also means that this verb is usually (not always) 'dwitransitif'.
'Dwitransitif' : it has two objects in the sentence.
'Ekatransitif : it has one object in the sentence.

Example dwitransitif:
"Saya membelikan Tini seekor kucing". = "I buy Tini a cat".
The Indonesian sentence is (S-P-O-Pel), the two objects in this sentence:
"Tini" = [O] = direct object (dativ object in German)
"seekor kucing" = [Pel] = indirect object (accusativ object in German)

Example ekatransitif :
'mendengarkan' is an example of an 'ekatransitif' 'me-kan' verb (one object):
'mendengar' = ekatransitif = to hear
'mendengarkan' = ekatransitif = to listen
"Saya mendengar bunyi sirene." = "I hear the sound of the sirene"
"Saya tidak bisa mendengarkan warta berita." = "I cannot listen to the news."

Furthermore, there is a group of verbs where the meaning does not differ significantly, with or without the '-kan' suffix.
Examples:
antar : mengantar – mengantarkan = to bring someone.
balik : membalik – membalikkan = to bring back something.
cipta : mencipta – menciptakan = to create something.
ganti : mengganti – menggantikan = to exchange something.
palsu : memalsu – memalsukan = to falsify something.


To summarise:
'me-kan' verbs can be formed using different types of [base words] (noun/verb/adjective/etc).
'me-kan' verbs are transitive (needing an object).
'di-kan' is the passive counterpart.


Here is the conjugation table to convert a [base word] into a 'me-verb' :

Starting letter base word Conjugation
l, m, n, r, w Me + base
vowel, g, h Me + ng
c, d, j Me + n
b, f, v Me + m
k Me + ng – k
t Me + n – t
s Me + ny – s
p Me + m – p
monosyllabic Me + nge +base

There are more examples in the following Tinycards decks :

'me-kan' , 'me-i' affix in one deck :
https://tinycards.duolingo.com/decks/7XFDuU2w/me-kan-me-i-bahasa-indonesia

'me-' prefix :
https://tinycards.duolingo.com/decks/7XE3GxCr/me-prefix-bahasa-indonesia

'transitive verbs and the passive counterparts' :
https://tinycards.duolingo.com/decks/7WhWoLQQ/verbs-bahasa-indonesia


Related topics :

'me-i' verbs :
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31492630

'Passive type 1 and 2':
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31279476

'Transitive & Intransitive verbs':
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/29750515


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 4.5.1.2.2 Penurunan verba transitif dengan '-kan'.

March 29, 2019

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