https://www.duolingo.com/Rick392366

'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'me-i' verbs are transitive (needing a direct object in the sentence).
'di-i' verbs are the passive counterpart.
'me-i' verbs have a locative function : the object is the location of the action.

"me-i" verbs with a [noun base].
These verbs are transitive: these verbs have an object and they have a passive counterpart.
The object in the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence.
These "me-i" verbs with a [noun base] can have the following meanings:
to apply [the base] or to give the [base] to the object.
to act as [the base] or to be as the [base].

Examples "me- i", "di- i" (active & passive):
==> to apply or to give the [base] to the object.

minyak (n) = oil.
Tini meminyaki mobilnya Tono.
Mobilnya Tono diminyaki (oleh) Tini.

tanda tangan (n) = signature.
Tini menandatangani surat.
Surat ditandatangani (oleh) Tini.

bohong (n) = lie.
Tini membohongi Tono.
Tono dibohongi (oleh) Tini.

obat (n) = medicine.
Dokter Tini mengobati pasien.
Pasien diobati (oleh) Dokter Tini.

Examples "me- i", "di- i" (active & passive):
==> to be as or to act as the [base].

bintang (n) = star.
Tini akan membintangi film Star Trek.
Film Star Trek akan dibintangi (oleh) Tini.

sutradara = film director.
Tono akan menyutradarai film tersebut.
Film tersebut akan disutradarai (oleh) Tono.

juara = champion.
Film tersebut bisa menjuarai kompetisi Oscar.
Kompetisi Oscar bisa dijuarai (oleh) film tersebut.


"me-i" verbs with an [adjective base].
It has more a locative function than a causative function ("me-kan").
These "me-i" verbs usually have the meaning:
==> [the base] is applied to the object
==> to make the object become like [the base].
(for some base words, there is no difference in meaning between "me-i" and "me-kan").

kotor (adj) = dirty.
Perusahaan itu mengotori sungai ini.
Sungai ini dikotori (oleh) perusahaan itu.

terang (adj) = light.
Tini menerangi kamar dengan lilin.
Kamar diterangi (oleh) Tini dengan lilin.

hampir (adv) = almost,near.
Tini menghampiri tempat tidur.
Tempat tidur dihampiri (oleh) Tini.


"me-i" verbs with an [intransitive verb base].
These verbs usually have the same meaning as the intransitive verb.
==> verb is usually followed by a phrase indicating a location.
==> the object is the location where the action occurs.

Tini datang ke rumah Tono.
Tini mendatangi rumah Tono.
Rumah Tono didatangi (oleh) Tini.

Tono masuk ke dalam kamar.
Tono memasuki kamar.
Kamar dimasuki (oleh) Tono.

Tono duduk di kursi Tini.
Tono menduduki kursi Tini.
Kursi Tini diduduki (oleh) Tono.

Tono hadir di rapat itu.
Tono menghadiri rapat itu.
Rapat itu dihadiri (oleh) Tono.


Some 'me-i' verbs indicate repeated action or intense action.

Tono menciumi Tini.=
Tono mencium Tini berkali-kali. =
Tono kisses Tini over and over again.

Tini senang menggigiti kukunya.
Tini likes to byte her nails.


'oleh' is optional if it's positioned directly after the passive 'di-' verb.
'oleh' is mandatory if the passive 'di-' verb is followed by something else.
The function of 'oleh' is to introduce the 'agent/actor', the one performing the action of the verb.


'me-i' and 'me-kan' verbs can have totally different meanings even though they're derived from the same base word.

terang (adj) = light.
Tini menerangi kamar dengan lilin. = Tini lights the room with a candle.
Tini menerangkan matematika kepada temannya. = Tini explains mathematics to her friend.


To summarise :
'me-i' verbs are transitive (needing a direct object in the sentence).
'me-i' verbs usually have a locative function : the object is the location of the action.
some 'me-i' verbs indicate repeated or intense action.


Here is the conjugation table to convert a [base word] into a 'me-verb' :

Starting letter base word Conjugation
l, m, n, r, w Me + base
vowel, g, h Me + ng
c, d, j Me + n
b, f, v Me + m
k Me + ng – k
t Me + n – t
s Me + ny – s
p Me + m – p
monosyllabic Me + nge +base

There are more examples in the following Tinycards decks :

'me-kan' , 'me-i' affix in one deck :
https://tinycards.duolingo.com/decks/7XFDuU2w/me-kan-me-i-bahasa-indonesia

'me-' prefix :
https://tinycards.duolingo.com/decks/7XE3GxCr/me-prefix-bahasa-indonesia

'transitive verbs and the passive counterparts' :
https://tinycards.duolingo.com/decks/7WhWoLQQ/verbs-bahasa-indonesia


Related topics :

'me-kan' verbs :
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31492596

'Passive type 1 and 2':
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31279476

'Transitive & Intransitive verbs':
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/29750515


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 4.5.1.2.3. Penurunan verba transitif dengan '-i'.

March 29, 2019

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