https://www.duolingo.com/Rick392366

'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'ini' = this, these
'itu' = that, those

'ini' , 'itu' are determiners.
If 'ini / 'itu' starts the sentence, 'ini / 'itu' is the subject of the sentence (see examples 1-4).
If 'ini / 'itu' is used in a noun phrase, 'ini / 'itu' marks the end of a noun phrase. (see examples 5-12).

(1) Ini kucing. = This is a cat.
(2) Ini kucing kecil. = This is a small cat.
(3) Itu gunung. = That is a mountain.
(4) Itu gunung tinggi. = That is a high mountain.

(5) Kucing ini = This cat
(6) Kucing kecil ini = This small cat
(7) Kucing ini kecil. = This cat is small.
(8) Kucing kecil ini suka tidur. = This small cat likes to sleep.

(9) Gunung itu = That mountain
(10) Gunung tinggi itu = That high mountain
(11) Gunung itu tinggi = That mountain is high.
(12) Gunung tinggi itu sedang meletus. = That high mountain is erupting.


(2) Ini kucing kecil. ==> (S-P); S=Ini=[FN];
This is a small cat.

(7) Kucing ini kecil. ==> (S-P); S=kucing ini=[FN];
This cat is small.

(8) Kucing kecil ini suka tidur. ==> (S-P); S=kucing kecil ini=[FN];
This small cat likes to sleep.

(4) Itu gunung tinggi. ==> (S-P); S=Itu=[FN];
That is a high mountain.

(11) Gunung itu tinggi. ==> (S-P); S=gunung itu=[FN];
That mountain is high.

(12) Gunung tinggi itu sedang meletus. ==> (S-P); S=Gunung tinggi itu=[FN];
That high mountain is erupting.

In examples (1-4), the words 'ini' / 'itu' are the only words in the noun phrase.
The sentence structure is (S-P), whereby S='ini, 'itu' and P=[FN]
In examples (5-12), the words 'ini' / 'itu' mark the end of the noun phrase.
The sentence structure is (S-P), whereby S=[FN] and P=[FV] or [Adj]


In other words, "Kucing ini kecil" is not the same as "Ini kucing kecil".
This can also be seen when these sentences are negated, see examples below:

(2) Ini kucing kecil.
Ini bukan kucing kecil. <== [FN] negated with 'bukan'

(6) Kucing ini kecil.
Kucing ini tidak kecil. <== [Adj] negated with 'tidak'

(4) Itu gunung tinggi.
Itu bukan gunung tinggi. <== [FN] negated with 'bukan'

(11) Gunung itu tinggi.
Gunung itu tidak tinggi. <== [Adj] negated with 'tidak'


To summarise :
In a noun phrase, the noun comes first followed by the modifiers and closed with 'ini / itu'.
Below is a formula about the word order in a noun phrase [FN].

(a) [nomina + adjektiva + persona + penunjuk]
buku merah saya ini
anak nakal dia itu
celana kotor mereka itu

(b) [nomina + persona + yang + adjektiva + penunjuk]
buku saya yang merah ini
anak dia yang nakal itu
celana mereka yang kotor itu

(a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
(b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner


Another use of 'itu' :
'itu' can also be used to separate the [Subject] and the [Predicate].
Example:
(98) Harimau itu binatang liar. = Tigers are wild animals.
(99) Binatang liar itu harimau. = That wild animal is a tiger.

In example (98), 'itu' is not a determiner, but it functions as a separator of [S] and [P].
'itu' doesn't refer to a specific tiger, but refers to all tigers.
'itu' has a generic function here.
'itu' can be omitted (or replaced by 'adalah') in this sentence.
In example (99). 'itu' functions as a determiner and marks the end of a noun phrase.
'itu' refers to the head noun 'binatang liar'.
'itu' refers to a specific wild animal.
'itu' cannot be omitted in this sentence.


Related topics :

Adjectives, Noun phrases,, Tips & Notes, Addendum:
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31285942

Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum:
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31291121


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.2.3.1. Pronomina Penunjuk Umum.

March 29, 2019

1 Comment


https://www.duolingo.com/Jon.Orble

This is really thorough and useful. Thank you.

One additional thing you didn’t explore is that “itu” can sometimes be translated as “the”. You might be able to explain this better than me, but an example of the context where “itu” means “the” might be the following:

Example: Ada lima binatang di sini. Harimau itu berbahaya.

Translation: There are five animals here. The tiger is dangerous.

Here the speaker means to refer to a particular individual tiger amongst the five animals in front of him. “The” is a much better translation of “itu” than “that”, just in this particular context.

Duo does allow “the” as the correct translation of “itu” in most (?) cases (as well as “that” of course) but I think learners should use “that” by default.

Happy to be corrected if you disagree or can help explain this more fully.

May 5, 2019
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