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'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'ini' = this, these
'itu' = that, those

'ini' , 'itu' are determiners.
If 'ini / 'itu' starts the sentence, 'ini / 'itu' is the subject of the sentence (see examples 1-4).
If 'ini / 'itu' is used in a noun phrase, 'ini / 'itu' marks the end of a noun phrase. (see examples 5-12).

(1) Ini kucing. = This is a cat.
(2) Ini kucing kecil. = This is a small cat.
(3) Itu gunung. = That is a mountain.
(4) Itu gunung tinggi. = That is a high mountain.

(5) Kucing ini = This cat
(6) Kucing kecil ini = This small cat
(7) Kucing ini kecil. = This cat is small.
(8) Kucing kecil ini suka tidur. = This small cat likes to sleep.

(9) Gunung itu = That mountain
(10) Gunung tinggi itu = That high mountain
(11) Gunung itu tinggi = That mountain is high.
(12) Gunung tinggi itu sedang meletus. = That high mountain is erupting.


(2) Ini kucing kecil. ==> (S-P); S=Ini=[FN];
This is a small cat.

(7) Kucing ini kecil. ==> (S-P); S=kucing ini=[FN];
This cat is small.

(8) Kucing kecil ini suka tidur. ==> (S-P); S=kucing kecil ini=[FN];
This small cat likes to sleep.

(4) Itu gunung tinggi. ==> (S-P); S=Itu=[FN];
That is a high mountain.

(11) Gunung itu tinggi. ==> (S-P); S=gunung itu=[FN];
That mountain is high.

(12) Gunung tinggi itu sedang meletus. ==> (S-P); S=Gunung tinggi itu=[FN];
That high mountain is erupting.

In examples (1-4), the words 'ini' / 'itu' are the only words in the noun phrase.
The sentence structure is (S-P), whereby S='ini, 'itu' and P=[FN]
In examples (5-12), the words 'ini' / 'itu' mark the end of the noun phrase.
The sentence structure is (S-P), whereby S=[FN] and P=[FV] or [Adj]


In other words, "Kucing ini kecil" is not the same as "Ini kucing kecil".
This can also be seen when these sentences are negated, see examples below:

(2) Ini kucing kecil.
Ini bukan kucing kecil. <== [FN] negated with 'bukan'

(6) Kucing ini kecil.
Kucing ini tidak kecil. <== [Adj] negated with 'tidak'

(4) Itu gunung tinggi.
Itu bukan gunung tinggi. <== [FN] negated with 'bukan'

(11) Gunung itu tinggi.
Gunung itu tidak tinggi. <== [Adj] negated with 'tidak'


To summarise :
In a noun phrase, the noun comes first followed by the modifiers and closed with 'ini / itu'.
Below is a formula about the word order in a noun phrase [FN].

(a) [nomina + adjektiva + persona + penunjuk]
buku merah saya ini
anak nakal dia itu
celana kotor mereka itu

(b) [nomina + persona + yang + adjektiva + penunjuk]
buku saya yang merah ini
anak dia yang nakal itu
celana mereka yang kotor itu

(a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
(b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner


Another use of 'itu' :
'itu' can also be used to separate the [Subject] and the [Predicate].
Example:
(98) Harimau itu binatang liar. = Tigers are wild animals.
(99) Binatang liar itu harimau. = That wild animal is a tiger.

In example (98), 'itu' is not a determiner, but it functions as a separator of [S] and [P].
'itu' doesn't refer to a specific tiger, but refers to all tigers.
'itu' has a generic function here.
'itu' can be omitted (or replaced by 'adalah') in this sentence.
In example (99). 'itu' functions as a determiner and marks the end of a noun phrase.
'itu' refers to the head noun 'binatang liar'.
'itu' refers to a specific wild animal.
'itu' cannot be omitted in this sentence.


Related topics :

Adjectives, Noun phrases,, Tips & Notes, Addendum:
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31285942

Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum:
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31291121


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.2.3.1. Pronomina Penunjuk Umum.

March 29, 2019

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