'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.
'ini' = this, these
'itu' = that, those
'ini' , 'itu' are determiners.
If 'ini / 'itu' starts the sentence, 'ini / 'itu' is the subject of the sentence (see examples 1-4).
If 'ini / 'itu' is used in a noun phrase, 'ini / 'itu' marks the end of a noun phrase. (see examples 5-12).
(1) Ini kucing. = This is a cat.
(2) Ini kucing kecil. = This is a small cat.
(3) Itu gunung. = That is a mountain.
(4) Itu gunung tinggi. = That is a high mountain.
(5) Kucing ini = This cat
(6) Kucing kecil ini = This small cat
(7) Kucing ini kecil. = This cat is small.
(8) Kucing kecil ini suka tidur. = This small cat likes to sleep.
(9) Gunung itu = That mountain
(10) Gunung tinggi itu = That high mountain
(11) Gunung itu tinggi = That mountain is high.
(12) Gunung tinggi itu sedang meletus. = That high mountain is erupting.
(2) Ini kucing kecil. ==> (S-P); S=Ini=[FN];
This is a small cat.
(7) Kucing ini kecil. ==> (S-P); S=kucing ini=[FN];
This cat is small.
(8) Kucing kecil ini suka tidur. ==> (S-P); S=kucing kecil ini=[FN];
This small cat likes to sleep.
(4) Itu gunung tinggi. ==> (S-P); S=Itu=[FN];
That is a high mountain.
(11) Gunung itu tinggi. ==> (S-P); S=gunung itu=[FN];
That mountain is high.
(12) Gunung tinggi itu sedang meletus. ==> (S-P); S=Gunung tinggi itu=[FN];
That high mountain is erupting.
In examples (1-4), the words 'ini' / 'itu' are the only words in the noun phrase.
The sentence structure is (S-P), whereby S='ini, 'itu' and P=[FN]
In examples (5-12), the words 'ini' / 'itu' mark the end of the noun phrase.
The sentence structure is (S-P), whereby S=[FN] and P=[FV] or [Adj]
In other words, "Kucing ini kecil" is not the same as "Ini kucing kecil".
This can also be seen when these sentences are negated, see examples below:
(2) Ini kucing kecil.
Ini bukan kucing kecil. <== [FN] negated with 'bukan'
(6) Kucing ini kecil.
Kucing ini tidak kecil. <== [Adj] negated with 'tidak'
(4) Itu gunung tinggi.
Itu bukan gunung tinggi. <== [FN] negated with 'bukan'
(11) Gunung itu tinggi.
Gunung itu tidak tinggi. <== [Adj] negated with 'tidak'
To summarise :
In a noun phrase, the noun comes first followed by the modifiers and closed with 'ini / itu'.
Below is a formula about the word order in a noun phrase [FN].
(a) [nomina + adjektiva + persona + penunjuk]
buku merah saya ini
anak nakal dia itu
celana kotor mereka itu
(b) [nomina + persona + yang + adjektiva + penunjuk]
buku saya yang merah ini
anak dia yang nakal itu
celana mereka yang kotor itu
(a) [FN] = noun + adjective + personal pronoun + determiner
(b) [FN] = noun + personal pronoun + 'yang' + adjective + determiner
Another use of 'itu' :
'itu' can also be used to separate the [Subject] and the [Predicate].
(98) Harimau itu binatang liar. = Tigers are wild animals.
(99) Binatang liar itu harimau. = That wild animal is a tiger.
In example (98), 'itu' is not a determiner, but it functions as a separator of [S] and [P].
'itu' doesn't refer to a specific tiger, but refers to all tigers.
'itu' has a generic function here.
'itu' can be omitted (or replaced by 'adalah') in this sentence.
In example (99). 'itu' functions as a determiner and marks the end of a noun phrase.
'itu' refers to the head noun 'binatang liar'.
'itu' refers to a specific wild animal.
'itu' cannot be omitted in this sentence.
Related topics :
Adjectives, Noun phrases,, Tips & Notes, Addendum:
Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum:
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 18.104.22.168. Pronomina Penunjuk Umum.
This is really thorough and useful. Thank you.
One additional thing you didn’t explore is that “itu” can sometimes be translated as “the”. You might be able to explain this better than me, but an example of the context where “itu” means “the” might be the following:
Example: Ada lima binatang di sini. Harimau itu berbahaya.
Translation: There are five animals here. The tiger is dangerous.
Here the speaker means to refer to a particular individual tiger amongst the five animals in front of him. “The” is a much better translation of “itu” than “that”, just in this particular context.
Duo does allow “the” as the correct translation of “itu” in most (?) cases (as well as “that” of course) but I think learners should use “that” by default.
Happy to be corrected if you disagree or can help explain this more fully.
FV = Frasa Verbal = Verbal phrase.
Here is a topic where these abbreviations are used :
Abbreviations used in the document:
[N] = Nomina = noun
[FN] = Frasa Nominal = noun phrase
[V] = Verba = verb
[FV] = Frasa Verbal = verbal phrase
[Adj] = Adjektiva = adjective
[FAdj] = Frasa Adjektival = adjective phrase
[Num] = Numeral
[FNum] = Frasa Numeral = numeral phrase
[Prep] = Preposisi = preposition
[FPrep] = Frasa Preposisional = prepositional phrase
Thanks a lot for the explanation. One think I'm not sure about is when to use ini or itu.
In English, if we want to say a general statement, we tend to use that like in "that's good" or "I like that" but in my language (Hungarian) in these cases we use this. Should we use itu or ini in these cases in Indonesian?
One more thing is that can I replace ini/itu with -nya in case of verbs?
For example: Aku suka ini/itu --> Aku sukanya.
This article is very helpful!!
Please add the translation for the examples for [FN] (a) & (b) though! Because they add possessivness to the mix, I can't really figure it out myself...?! I feel a bit cheated that this is missing!
(98) Harimau itu binatang liar relies solely on context to discern if it's translated a) That tiger is a wild animal (the other tigers in the cage are relatively tame) or b) Tigers are wild animals Or is a) not permitted? And if so, why?
(98) Harimau itu binatang liar relies solely on context to discern if it's translated
a) That tiger is a wild animal (the other tigers in the cage are relatively tame) or
b) Tigers are wild animals
Or is a) not permitted? And if so, why?
Both translations are possible, it depends on context.
If you're standing in front of a tiger cage in a zoo, both translations are okay.
If you're in a classroom telling a general story about tigers, translation b) is more likely.
(I assume there are no tigers in the classroom).
I think that this example was meant to show another function of 'itu'.
In sentence b) 'itu' has the same function as 'adalah'.
Yes, I can't understand the noun + possessive + itu/ini structure.
Something like this ?:
Buku saya ini sangat murah.
This book of mine is very cheap.
Buku saya ini (S) sangat murah (P).
(S) = Subjek = [Frasa Nominal] = [noun + possessive + itu/ini] = buku saya ini = this book of mine
(P) = Predikat = [Frasa Adjektival] = sangat murah = very cheap