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Question words, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Overview of 'question words' :

asking for : question word Indonesian: question word English
humans 'siapa' "who"
objects 'apa' "what"
choice 'mana' "which"
cause 'mengapa', 'kenapa' "why"
time 'kapan', 'bila(mana)' "when"
place 'di mana', 'ke mana', 'dari mana' "where", "to where", "from where"
method 'bagaimana' "how"
total or sequence 'berapa' "how much", "how many"

There is a separate topic about the question words 'siapa', 'apa' :
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31279456

This topic is about the other question words.


'mana' = "Which".
'mana' is used to ask about a choice (about humans/objects/other things).

Contoh:
(1) Siswa mana yang akan dia pilih ? (Which student will he choose?)
(2) Rumah mana yang kosong ? (Which house is empty?)
(3) Sepedamu yang mana ? (Your bike is which one?)

'mana' can be combined with 'di', 'ke', 'dari' :
'di mana' = "Where".
'ke mana' = "To where".
'dari mana' = "From where".

Contoh:
(135a) Sekarang Pak Miskun tinggal di Jakarta.
(135b) Sekarang Pak Miskun tinggal di mana ?
(135c) Di mana sekarang Pak miskun tinggal ?
(135d) Di mana Pak Miskun tinggal sekarang ?

(136a) Besok mereka akan pergi ke Puncak.
(136b) Besok mereka akan pergi ke mana ?
(136c) Ke mana besok mereka akan pergi ?
(136d) Ke mana mereka akan pergi besok ?

(137a) Pak Sakerah berasal dari Surabaya.
(137b) Pak Sakerah berasal dari mana ?
(137c) Dari mana Pak Sakerah berasal ?

Dalam bahasa Indonesia baku, ketiga frasa itu dapat mengisi posisi keterangan tempat yang digantikannya dan posisinya dapat pada awal kalimat.
Karena keterangan waktu ('sekarang', 'besok') dapat pula berada pada akhir kalimat, maka kalimat (135c) dan (136c) dapat juga diganti dengan kalimat (135d) dan (136d).

Translation example sentences:
(135a) Now Pak Miskun lives in Jakarta.
(135b) Now Pak Miskun lives where?
(135c) Where does Pak Miskun live now?

(136a) Tomorrow they will go to Puncak.
(136b) Tomorrow they will go to where?
(136c) Where will they go to tomorrow?

(137a) Pak Sakerah is originally from Surabaya.
(137b) Pak Sakerah is originally from where?
(137c) Where does Pak Sakerah originally come from?

'di mana' in sentence (135) is asking about a place where someone lives.
'ke mana' in sentence (136) is asking about a place where someone is going to.
'dari mana' in sentence (137) is asking about a place where someone is coming from.

These question words replace the word that indicates 'the place' in the declarative sentence and can remain in the same position as the word it is replacing (see sentence b).
These question words can also be placed at the beginning of the sentence (more formal) (see sentence c,d).


'Mengapa' = 'Kenapa' = "Why".
'mengapa' and 'kenapa' have the same meaning.
'mengapa' is more formal ('baku').

In the formal style 'mengapa' ('kenapa') appears at the beginning of a declarative sentence to turn it into a question.
'mengapa' and 'kenapa' can be used with the particle '-kah'.

Contoh:
(138a) Angi tidak masuk (karena sakit).
(138b) Mengapa/Kenapa Angi tidak masuk ?

(139a) (Karena tidak belajar) Siswadi tidak lulus.
(139b) Mengapa/Kenapa Siswadi tidak lulus ?

(140a) Narti tidak menjawab suratmu (karena malas).
(140b) Mengapa(kah)/Kenapa(kah) Narti tidak menjawab suratmu ?

(138b) Why is Angi not coming in?
(139b) Why did Siswadi not graduate?
(140b) Why does Narti not answer your letter?


'Kapan' = "when".
'Kapan' = 'Bila(mana)'.
'Kapan' is used to ask about the time (something occurs).
'Kapan' is placed at the beginning of the sentence.
'Kapan' can be used with the particle '-kah'.

Contoh:
(141a) Mereka akan naik haji tahun depan.
(141b) Kapan/Bila(mana) mereka akan naik haji ?

(142a) Keluarga Ahmad akan pindah setelah anaknya lulus.
(142b) Kapan/Bila(mana) keluarga Ahmad akan pindah ?

(143a) Penduduk Indonesia akan melebihi dua ratus juta orang permulaan tahun 2000.
(143b) Kapan/Bila(mana) penduduk Indonesia akan melebihi dua ratus juta orang ?

(141b) When will they go on pilgrimage?
(142b) When will family Ahmad move?
(143b) When will the Indonesian population surpass 200 million people?


'Bagaimana' = "How".
'Bagaimana' can be placed at the beginning or at the end of the sentence.

Contoh:
(144) Bagaimana orang tuamu sekarang ?
(145) Bagaimana kita dapat mempertahankan nilai hidup luhur, tetapi dapat menjadi kaya ?
(146) Cara memperoleh dana bagaimana ?

Dalam bahasa sehari-hari 'bagaimana' sering diperpendek menjadi 'mana'.

(147) Mana mungkin kau bisa bayar besok ?
(148) Soal itu apa sudah beres ? Mana ku tahu ?

(144) How are your parents now?
(145) How can we maintain a high standard of life, but become rich?
(146) The method to obtain funds is how? (How to obtain funds?)

In everyday speech 'bagaimana' is shortened to 'mana' (see 147,148).
(147) How is it possible that you can pay tomorrow?
(148) That issue is already okay? How do I know?


'Berapa' = "How much", "How many".

'Berapa' is used to ask about a number, a total.
'Berapa' can be placed anywhere in the sentence (see examples 149, 150).
'Berapa' can be used as a marker of a noun phrase (see 151,152,153) and is placed in front of the noun ('berapa hari', 'berapa kilo', 'berapa macam beras').
In combination with certain words, 'berapa' can be placed after the noun, but it gives a different meaning to the phrase (see 154,155).
'Keberapa' is to ask about the level/relative position (see 156,157).
'Keberapa' is placed after the noun.

Contoh:
(149a) Berapa harga minyak goreng sekarang ?
(149b) Harga minyak goreng berapa sekarang ?
(149c) Harga minyak goreng sekarang berapa ?

(150a) Berapa jumlah orang yang hilang sampai saat ini ?
(150b) Jumlah orang yang hilang berapa sampai saat ini ?
(150b) Jumlah orang yang hilang sampai saat ini berapa ?

'Berapa' can be placed anywhere in the sentence (see examples 149, 150).
(149a) How much is the price of cooking oil now?
(149b) The price of cooking oil is how much now?
(149c) The price of cooking oil now is how much?

(150a) How much is the total number of people that have disappeared until now?
(150b) The total number of people that have disappeared is how much until now?
(150b) The total number of people that have disappeared until now is how much?

Kata penanya 'berapa' juga dapat dipakai sebagai pewatas untuk nomina dan ditempatkan sebelum nomina yang diwatasinya.

(151) Berapa hari Anda menginap di Tawangmangu waktu itu ?
(152) Berapa kilo yang kamu beli ?
(153) Berapa macam beras yang dijual toko sembako itu ?

'Berapa' can be used as a marker of a noun phrase (see 151,152,153).
'Berapa' is placed in front of the noun ('berapa hari', 'berapa kilo', 'berapa macam beras').
(151) How many days did you stay in Tawangmangu that time?
(152) How many kilogrammes did you buy?
(153) How many types of rice are sold in that groceries shop?

Dalam gabungannya kata tertentu, 'berapa' dapat ditempatkan di muka atau di belakang nomina yang diwatasinya.

(154a) Berapa jam kamu disiksa ?
(154b) Jam berapa kamu disiksa ?

(155a) Berapa tahun Pangeran Diponegoro melawan Belanda ?
(155a) Tahun berapa Pangeran Diponegoro melawan Belanda ?

In combination with certain words, 'berapa' can be placed before or after the noun.
However, it gives a different meaning to the phrase (see 154,155).
(154a) How many hours were you tortured?
(154b) At what time were you tortured?

(155a) How many years did Prince Diponegoro fight the Dutch?
(155b) In what year did Prince Diponegoro fight the Dutch?

Kata penanya 'berapa' juga dapat diberi prefiks 'ke-' sehingga menjadi 'keberapa'.
'Keberapa' selalu ditempatkan di belakang nomina yang diwatasinya.
'Keberapa' merujuk pada bilangan tingkat.

(156a) Jam berapa kuliah Pak Anuwae diberikan ?
(156a) Jam 10:30.

(157a) Jam keberapa kuliah Pak Anuwae diberikan ?
(157b) Jam ketiga.

'Keberapa' is to ask about the level/relative position (see 157).
'Keberapa' is placed after the noun.
(156a) At what time will Pak Anuwae's lecture be given?
(156b) At 10:30.

(157a) Which hour will Pak Anuwae's lecture be given?
(157b) The third hour.


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 7.2.3.3. Pronomina Penanya

March 29, 2019

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