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  5. "torgh ghaH loDvam'e'."

"torgh ghaH loDvam'e'."

Translation:This man is Torg.

March 29, 2019



When do you use ghaH and when can you omit it?


Have you read the Tips & Notes for this unit? An explanation is given in the Tips & Notes, but I know it can be a lot of new information and some details are bound to slip through the memory. However, since Duolingo has hidden the Tips & Notes I want to make sure you know about them and where to find them. If you have not been reading the Tips & Notes, I would like to ask that you review those so we don’t have to continuously repeat too much of the information that we have explained there.

If you are doing the course on iOS or Android, you cannot currently access the Tips & Notes through the app. To access the Tips & Notes, you will have to access the course using a web browser at https://www.duolingo.com/. You can still do it on your mobile device, but you will have to use the web browser instead of the app (or you can do it from a computer). When you click on a Skill, it will expand to reveal a Start button, a key, and a light bulb.

If you click on the light bulb it will reveal the Tips & Notes and give you a detailed explanation of the grammar that is introduced in that Skill. If you have questions after reading the Tips & Notes for any Skills, then please return to the forum to ask your question, explaining what you didn’t understand or what seems contradictory to you.

The tips and notes for this unit are at https://www.duolingo.com/skill/kl/Pronouns/tips-and-notes.


For sentences with standard verbs:

  • If there is sufficient context and the prefix (or lack of) identifies the subject/object the pronoun can be omitted.
  • If you need to clarify the correct one out of the possible options you can include a pronoun.
    e.g. {targh ghaj wo'rIv. choptaHbogh ghewmey ghaj} is a complete sentence but ambiguous. "Worf has a targ." OK, so far so good, but is the next bit "He has biting bugs" or "it has biting bugs?" In this case adding either a {ghaH} or {'oH} would clarify the matter.

For "to-be" sentences which specify that a noun is another noun, the pronoun is mandatory e.g.:

  • {wo'rIv ghaH} "He is worf."
  • {wo'rIv ghaH tlhIngan'e'} "The Klingon, he is Worf" or more simply "The Klingon is Worf." On this second example, the {-'e'} topic suffix is also mandatory.
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