"The toys are on the floor."
Translation:Aia nā mea pāʻani ma ka papahele.
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I'm a student too so take my response with a grain of salt, but as far as I can understand, "ma" can only refer to being at a specific location. "I" can also refer to being at a specific location, but can also be used for moving towards a specific location or being at a point in time.
No, it is not a singular/plural thing. "ma ka" and "i ka" can both be talking about something being stationary in a particular place (on the floor). "i ka" (but not "ma ka") is also often used for movement or going "to" a stationary spot (the toy/toys were on the table, but they have just now fallen to the floor).