https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Etymology Fun: What does the country of your target language mean?

I think I'm in good company here. Most of us learning a new language are the type of people who love researching and learning what things mean, including the name of the country (or countries) that your target language comes from. So let's grab our kava, kaffee, kofi, кафе... or teas... and get to it!


I'll start.... Ukraine. This country originally got its name from being the border country of Poland and Russia.

U - "at", and krai - the "edge". Oy is Old East Slavic, and the sound of krai was spelled either in Polish or Russian for border or edge. Now "-kraine" is the English spelling for what is "country" or "land" in Ukrainian now: країні. "U" is still borrowed from Old East Slavic, but in Ukrainian the "u" sound is spelled with the Cyrillic "Y". Ukraine is a feminine noun, which is why it's spelled Україна.

April 14, 2019

176 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Zzzzz...

Deutschland = Land of the People. Simple. You’d think.

Poor Deutschland! :(

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

And why do the Italians call German "Tedesco"?

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zzzzz...

It was actually derived from the same root as the German Deutsch. This is from Wikipedia:

Theodiscus is a Medieval Latin term meaning "popular" or "of the people". In Medieval Western Europe non-native Latin was the language of science, church and administration, hence theodiscus was used as an antonym of Latin, to refer to the "native language spoken by the general populace". The term was subsequently used in the Frankish Empire to denote the native Germanic vernaculars. As such, it was no longer used as antonym of Latin, but of walhisk, a language descendent from Latin, but nevertheless the speech of the general populace as well. In doing so theodiscus effectively obtained the meaning of "Germanic", or more specifically one of its local varieties – resulting in the English exonym Dutch, the German endonym Deutsch, and the Dutch exonym Duits, the Dutch endonym Diets, all of which are all cognates of theodiscus, which in Italian yielded tedesco.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

Thank you!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/GregMorgan9

Oh mein Gott. Thanks for this one.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/flying_crow

Nice find. I'm guessing the Lakota people had a bit of trouble understanding Germans... :)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Polygl-not

Germany cannot into Deutschland

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

Interesting how in Russian, the courntry is Германия, but the language is Немецкий similar to the country's name in the other slavic countries.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

"Niemecki" derives from "nie my" (not us), that is foreigners. Another version for it is "niemy" (speechless).

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Theron126

In fact the second theory, that it comes from the word for "mute", is the generally accepted one. At least in Russian.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike

Much as 'Wales' and 'Welsh' (and 'Gaul', I believe, for that matter) all come from the Germanic root for 'foreigner' ('Cymru' and 'Cymraeg' mean precisely the opposite!)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AR1US

I am Russian and speak Russian and have never heard of anything like that...

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Myrrael

There's also Германский язык, which would be the Germanic language. Just to make things interesting )

Enjoy digging that one up, though. lmao

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AR1US

Yes! That’s true.

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Ronald-B-Weasley

HAH!!! I LOVE that!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/ErinAndW

This is really funny!

One little thing I noticed: The French ball has a typo, instead of the correct "Il est Allemagne" it says "Il es Allemagne" without the t on est. But that sorta matches the others when they say "Why he not...?", "He actually..." etc.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zzzzz...

In Polandball comics, only balls that represent English speaking “clay” use language that is actual spoken language. All the others use mishmash of weird English and weird French/Italian/etc. :)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/scarcerer

I would be massively surprised if the Samoans (Siamani) had their own etymology for Germany. It seems much more likely that the word derives from the English word, and the Samoans had to replace the initial sound with an "s" because they don't have a "dz" in their language.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

According to Etymonline, "Dutch" (as Deutsch and Dutch are sister words):

From Middle Dutch duutsch, from Old High German duitisc, from Proto-Germanic theudō (meaning: "popular, national")*

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Transformation took place there:

Theudō=Teutsch=Deutsch. "Teutonisch" and "Dutch" are derived from it.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Hannibal-Barkas

not to forget the Germanic tribe, the "Teutonen"

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Osuuka

"The Netherlands" isn't that hard to figure out either. In Dutch we say Nederland which literally means low land. A big part of the Netherlands is under sea level and throughout Dutch history we have had to cope with marshes and floods. The Netherlands literally mean The Low Lands.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Yes, and the region Holland is a part of the Netherlands.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike

'Holland', on the other hand, means 'wood land', cognate with German 'Holz' (and English 'holt', although this isn't a terrifically-common word).

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/JesusMayaZ

Officialy Mexico means "in the navel of the moon", comes from the nahuatl Mexitli, nahuatl is an agglutinative lenguage, so Mexitli is formed by metzli-, moon; xictli-, navel and co, that is the particle for place or land; there are others possible ethimlogies like Mexictli another name for the god Huitzilopochtli, or Mexictli that means in the navel of the maguey.

Sorry for my English, I am not native

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

JesusMaya, your English is wonderful! If you don't mind me asking what is your native language.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/JesusMayaZ

I am mexican, my first lenguage is Spanish and I learned Portuguese before English

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

iQue Bien! Yo estoy aprendiendo el español es un idioma hermoso, yo disfruto aprenderlo y gran trabajo, Saber tres idiomas es muy impresionante. Yo solo sé hablar ingles y un poco de español.

Lo siento si yo hice un poco errores en mi español :)

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

Should be:

¡Qué bien! Estoy aprendiendo el español, es un idioma hermoso y disfruto aprenderlo. Saber tres idiomas es muy impresionante. Yo sólo sé hablar el inglés y un poco del español. Lo siento si cometí algún error con mi español, ya que aún estoy aprendiendo

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

Hola Roman, Gracias por ayudarme aquí hay un lingot para ti :)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Great info!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/carbsrule

Japan probably has the most well-known, 日本 Nihon/Nippon = sun-origin, the source of our phrase "land of the rising sun".

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Just to add... I believe we get the Anglicized "Japan" from the Chinese jih pun for their word "sunrise".

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/GarethHarp

Interesting that the Japanese call their own country by the designation that the Chinese gave them (since it's only the land of the rising sun when considered from China) instead of having a native word for themselves. It would be like Britain calling itself "Island off France".

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Linda7Italian

HeyMarlana. Interesting! For the sake of accuracy, I give you the Google answer which I found several years ago, as follows:"The name Italy (Italia) is an ancient name for the country and people of Southern Italy. Originally is was spelled Vitalia, probably from the same root as the Latin vitulus (a one-year-old calf), thus literally meaning 'calf-land' or "Land of Cattle". Any additional information from "the Italian family" most welcome.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Vitalia sounds like "full of life" or something, but yes, I looked on Etymonline and it also said something about land of cattle.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/susanstory

"Canada" means "the village" in some First Nations language.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Just to add about the some First Nation language.... well, because I'm Canadian and I'm proud of it.... :)

That language was an Iroquois dialect that is now extinct. Kanata, as it was commonly called by neighbouring tribes like the Mohawk pronounced it stressing the middle syllable: ka-NA-ta. Today, there is an area called Kanata in the greater Ottawa region - with the same Indigenous pronunciation.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HalJam
  • 1487

That language was an Iroquois dialect that is now extinct.

St. Lawrence Iroquoian, to be exact - spoken by the people who lived, inter alia, at the village of Hochelaga^ on the southern slopes of Mont Royal in the heart of what is now Montréal (just about where the main campus of McGill University is today), and who were visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535^^ during his travels up the St. Lawrence River in search of a maritime passage westwards to China ...

... And whose trip upriver was blocked by the large rapids in the St. Lawrence southwest of Montréal that Cartier named in some frustration (or hope) "Lachine", a name they keep to this day, and which led to the founding of Montréal by the French in 1642 as a port and trading site and fort at the furthest point that ocean-going ships could travel upriver - all travel westwards thereafter to the Great Lakes and beyond into the heart of North America being by canoe brigade launched above the Lachine Rapids.

So "Canada" is basically a French adaptation of an Iroquoian word (in the broadest sense), intimately related to the history of the founding and development of la Nouvelle-France.

^ And who subsequently disappeared from the historical record as a distinct people (and distinct subgroup of the Iroquoian languages) for reasons still not clearly understood.

^^ As described by Cartier in his famous Bref récit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI in which he provided "the historical documentation for the name of Canada" as being derived from a St. Lawrence Iroquian word.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Well done! :)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Myrrael

In very short: Russia/ Росси́я (Rossiya/ IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]) comes from Русская Земля (Russian Land/ Land of Rus').

The longer version would go into who/ what the Rus' people were, where they landed, where they came from. ....and apparently this is still a debate, alive and well, in current times. So, yeah, if you feel like going on an interesting etymology digging adventure....! )))

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

The name of Hungary is an exonym derived from the Medieval Latin "Hungaria". The Latin name itself derives from the ethnonyms of a nomadic people "huns" who lived in Central Asia that conquered the land today known as Hungary. But the Hungarians denominate themselves Magyars and their homeland Magyarország (tha land of Magyars). The word "Magyar" is derived from Old Hungarian "Mogyër" ("man", "person" in Proto-Ugric language). Huns was a turkic tribe. Before they came to the Carpatian Basin (Pannonia) it had been already populated by various ugrian tribes. That's why Hun+Ugor+ia=Hungaria.

The English name of Turkey (from Medieval Latin Turchia/Turquia) means "land of the Turks". Turkic people of Oghuzs invaded and occupied the land now known as Turkey (it has nothing common with the Thanksgiving Day's bird).

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

❤❤❤❤❤❤. I accidentally deleted my comment about the "-garia" part. Sorry Attila. I was trying to delete/edit one of my other comments.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Not at all. Marlana, I should say to you that your topics are the best on the Forum. I'm always glad to participate in them. Today I came too late to the topic "Cheers! Here's to your new language!" I had a lot to tell, but I came lately and there was no wine left for me.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Linda7Italian

Attila. I agree. Marlana's posts are most agreeable on the Forum, a refreshing change from... well, all the usual stuff about lingots etc.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

I agree Attila and Linda, I always enjoy reading Marlana's post as well they are about interesting, worth-while topics. After reading the posts I almost always find out something I haven't thought of or known before.

Lingot for Attila, Linda, and Marlana.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

My goodness! Attila, Linda, and Andres, thank you for the compliments! I'm glad to create such topics so we can learn from each other. :)

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Ronald-B-Weasley

This is a very interesting post! A lingot for you! But, I've been looking and can't find it, would someone mind telling where the word "France" comes from. Thank you, a lingot for whoever tells me!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

Hi Ronald-B-Wesley, I think the point of this post was to give everyone a challenge to look up a country, come back with some interesting info., and then share with the community.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike

Possibly from PIE '*prAng-' ('spear'), via proto-Germanic '*frankô'.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/KohlMagness

I think France means "The Land of the Franks", but I'm not sure.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Denise777488

When the Romans conquered it was named Gaul. After they left a number of Tribes descended on it including the Norse Men (Men from the North, Norway/Sweden) and the Germanic Franks. The Latin word Francia meant the 'land of the Franks' and this then led the whole country to be referred to as France. Normandy was named after the Norse men who lived there, and they eventually conquered England.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Judit294350

The tribe known as the Huns arrive in the Carpathian Basin some 500 years before the Magyars. Although their ancestry was related in the distant past, the Hun language and Magyar is very different and not in the same language family. DNA also shows very little connection between the two (source - the National Museum in Budapest plus quite a bit of book research). The confusion was from the existing European population who had a memory of different looking people from the east, on horseback and who were extremely efficient raiders. Far as they were concerned all horsemen in trousers were the same.

I find it ironic that the turulists now embrace both the Huns (who were unrelated) and the Mongols (who slaughtered at least 30% of the ethnic Magyar population).

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

I'll point out that we have absolutely no idea what the Hun language was related tom, what it sounded like, etc. We have I think only about three words of their language, and there are numerous theories about their origins. Most consider the Huns to have been some sort of Turkic people, and not Finno-Ugric speakers as the Hungarians are, but that's complete guesswork.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Yes, there is a lot of guesswork to do left!

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Oh, Judit, it seems you dislike turulists. Why? Do you think that the Magyar nation is exclusevely of finno-ugric origin? Once I left a link for you to read. You ignored it. I repeat it again not for you, of course, but for all those who read and understand Hungarian. The result of DNA research is also presented there:

http://www.magyartudat.com/neparaczki-endre-genetikus-szkita-hun-es-kelet-azsiai-szarmazasunk

By the way, at the time of Miklos Horty the turulist theory was much more popular than the finno-ugric one and Magyars were very proud to be descendants of Attila, the Warlord of mighty Huns!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Judit294350

It isn't that I ignored your links - so that I have been down that path before.

And I don't actually "dislike" turulists - some of my family are turulists and I am very fond of them. I have also been to Kurultáj. But affection and politics is not the same science and facts and I will take my steer from accredited Hungarian scholars and archaeologists.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Judit, I am glad to know that you have nothing against turulists! Well, Hungarians are still doing a lot of guesswork concerning their origin. It's a very interesting topic. An eastern people of an eastern tongue, but at the same time a pillar of the Western Civilizaton. How marvellous it is!!!

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

But now linguistic analysis has been done and shown that Hungarian is very much a Finno-Ugric language. That's not in doubt at all. Genetically? Most Hungarians are descended from Hungarised local Slavs. So?

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Well, you know, Bulgarians are totally of turkic origin. So what? They speak a slavonic language in Bulgaria. Bulgars that came from Volga (Idel) region were assimilated by surrounding slavs and adopted a slavonic dialect. As for Hungarians, they accepted a lot of words from German and from other turkic and slavonic languages. Hungarian is a mix of different languages. But the Grammar remains Finno-Ugric. There are also separable prefixes and the Future Tense like in German (another Finnio-Ugrian languages don't have it).

Zda-li jsi slavofil? Přejdi na Google překladatel a přelož článek, který jsem tu opustil.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

I can provide sources though. The origins of the Hungarians are well understood and there's nothing wrong with them. Genetically most Hungarians are of Slavic stock because the Hungarian nobility was able to replace the Slavic nobility, and the Slavic peasantry was absorbed. But so what? Hungarian culture is its own. You're coming out with the disproven idea that Hungarians and Huns were the same people however, and there is absolutely no evidence for that. Now the Treaty of Trianon, which has absolutely nothing to do with whether or not Huns and Hungarians were related... The Huns were almost certainly a Turkic people related most closely to modern Chuvash. The Treaty of Trianon was unjust. The two matters are not related, and I am in no way attacking Hungarians, just saying that you have your own culture, a very good culture, and don't need to try to claim a people whose only claim to fame was making a ruckus for a few years before evaporating into irrelevance and death.

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

I'll admit that I didn't know that Hungarian was such a mixed language. Still, grammatically it's a solidly Finno-Ugric language, and there's no need to emphasise a dead people group who almost certainly spoke a language unrelated to Hungarian. As I've said, Hungarian culture has much to be proud of, don't shackle yourselves to some barbarians who lasted barely a generation.

Continuing to speak in this manner is rather inconvenient given that our replies go out of order whenever they're upvoted or downvoted, I suggest continuing this conversation in a separate thread so that we can correspond more logically.

Regarding the Treaty of Trianon, I challenge anyone to read it and not call it unjust. The treaty that was levelled on the Ottomans was worse, but they were able to fight against it so it didn't go into effect. In contrast, Hungary lost most of its land, including a vast amount of territory which was majority Hungarian, its military was completely taken apart, and in general what was done to Hungary was simple malice, a policy to give Hungary to anyone who would take it, regardless of the opinions of the locals.

April 18, 2019, 7:03 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

Saying that Bulgarians are of 'totally Turkic origin' is a little like saying that the French are of 'totally Germanic origin': it's plainly false. The Bulgars were a tiny elite class who weren't even able to replace the local nobility. They left their name and literally a handful of words.

EDIT: Ah, and that article is Hungarian nationalist drivel, complete with exactly no sources, with all due respect.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Well, Roman, you trust Wikipedia. Let's look into it:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarians#Ethnic_affiliations_and_genetic_origins

As you see, Hungarians are the people of mixed origin. I don't insist that Hungarians and Huns were the same people. But the Carpatian Basin was a melting pot were different turkic, finno-ugrian, slavic peoples mixed up into a unique nation. See also the diagram "Origin of word roots in Hungarian" (Uralic-21%, Slavic-20%, German-11%, Turkic-9.5%). So, Hungarians are relatives to Finno-Ugrians, Slavs, Turkics and Germans. I am very glad to know that you consider the Trianon Treaty to be unjust! Excuse me for my sharpness, but you really seemed me to be another one exaltated Ukrainian nationalist with a motto "Ukrayina ponad vse". Now I am glad that I was wrong! Sorry.

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Listen, Roman, there are some people in this world who would say everything you write about Ukraine is an Ukranian nationalist drivel. Why do I not put my nose into your Ukrainian-Russian dogfight? Because I do not know the stuff (although I guess the reason of it). And I am indifferent to this eternal slavic dispute (your problems are yours only). Why are you not so indifferent to our turulistic problems? I think it's not a slavonic business to teach us about our origins. What would you think if I say that Ukranians are "malorossy" (Little Russians)? What would you think if I say that Crimea is Russia? What would you think if I say Ungvár (or Uzsgorod if you like it) belongs to Hungary? I guess you will be insulted. So, Trianon treaty insults us. Why should we be glad? In former times the whole Carpatian Basin belonged to us and slavonic peoples were our guests there. Despite of Asian origin of Magyars, Hungary is a part of the Western Civilization. And Ukraine has still to prove it belongs to it (as for me I strongly doubt it). I wonder who gives you lingots? Slavophiles, maybe.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

First of all, Roman, the Treaty of Trianon has really absolutely nothing to do with the topic we discuss here. It was my emotional reaction to your frase "Hungarian nationalist drivel". I think a Hungarian also has his own right to be a nationalist as an Ukrainian does. Secondly, I know there is a certain type of Ukrainian nationalist who has slavophil claims and puts Ukrainian nationalistic interests above all. Such a type is constantly complaining that Hungarians, Romanians, Poles opressed Ukrainians throughout the whole history and believes Transcarpathian is an indisputable part of Ukraine. Yes, I thought first you were just a nationalist of this type. Now I see I was wrong. In relation to the topic, the Carpatian Basin was settled by different nomadic finno-ugic and turkic tribes that mixed up with local Slavs. Many nomadic tribes in ancient history of Europe were considered to be barbarians. But later they were civilized by Rome or by Byzantium. Hungarians were civilized by Rome at times of St. Stephen I (circa 1000 AD). You may read about it:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Christianity_in_Hungary

But Hungarians feel their relationship to the Finno-Ugrian as well as to the Turkic world. Why should we renounce our turkic ties (and recognize exclusively Finno-Ugrian ones)? As for me I regret turkic peoples that were not so lucky as we to receive a light of Chrustian faith (exceptions are few). Turks were very close to it at time of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, but alas... But still we share our common heritage with turkic nations at the annual "Kurultáj" festival:

http://kurultaj.hu

Well, Roman, I would suggest you to start learn Hungarian. It is so beautiful language, difficult, it's true, but nevertheless a very powerful one!

April 19, 2019, 12:40 PM

https://www.duolingo.com/Zzzzz...

I do not know any Hungarian. Is that article only about genetics or are there any mentions of languages and culture in general? Genetic information is great when trying to learn more about peoples’ movements before existing written records, but it does not necessarily say much about the prevailing culture.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Well, try to googletranslate it. Though the translation will not be as accurate as it should be, the essence is clear. Pay attention to the picture and the table (with test results from different graves).

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zzzzz...

In my experience, trying to googletranslate something tends to usually be precisely that, trying. :)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/PeterPan173079

No, the country Turkey is not named after the bird, but the bird is named after traders from Turkey.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

It's an alternative anglo-saxon version. Why should I support it? By the way Turks now think to rename their country for not to be associated with this stupid bird.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike

Should India also rename itself because the Turks call a turkey 'hindi' for exactly the same reason? I think anyone with two or more brain cells to rub together can distinguish a country from a bird named after it in an extremely zoogeographically-inaccurate way.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

I dunno. Once I got Hungary, and I tried cooking Turkey in Greece. It almost caused a diplomatic incident!

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Bah-dum-pshhh

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Yes, you're right, but it's unpleasant though! This is a bird from American continent:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestic_turkey

So, how Turks could domesticate it?

Read with attention: "The English language name for this species results from an early MISIDENTIFICATION OF THE BIRD WITH AN UNRELATED SPECIES which was imported to Europe through the country of Turkey."

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike

Yes, I know that; I think it originally referred to the guineafowl (which name at least gets the continent right). However, my point was that English is far from unique in misnaming this New-World bird with a completely inaccurate geographical term; look at translations for 'turkey' and you will find that different languages think it comes from all over the place.

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

Hungary and Hun may look similar, but they're unrelated. Hungary comes through Latin Hungaria from the ethnonyms (H)ungarī, Ungrī, and Ugrī, while Hun comes from Late Latin Hunnus, from Ancient Greek Ούννοι (Oúnnoi), borrowed through Middle Iranian, apparently ultimately from Turkic *Hun-yü, which is theorised to be connected to Xiongnu.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Ah! You downvoted me? That means I am right! Hehehe.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ugric_languages#/media/File:Lenguas_ugrias.png Hungarians have been Ungri and Ungarians since long before they conquered the Carpathian basin, so I have the written sources from that time. They look similar, but they're not the same word. The Huns as a people weren't even impressive. They made a bit of a mess, then were defeated and disappeared completely. That's who you're basing your identity on? Not on the real Hungarians who have fought so hard to maintain their unique identity while surrounded by others, and succeeded where so many before them failed? The bulwark against Ottoman expansion that even when absorbed by the Austrians quickly gained leadership of the construct that followed?

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

And your one is many guys with a script. So what?

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/chip284801

thanks, those are my two main languages here at Duolingo (turkish and hungarian)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Rezano_Khaggio

I would like to take this opportunity and talk about the country of my source language. IRAN means "The Land of Aryans". As of 1935, the official name of Iran in the Occident was "Persia", however, the Iranian people have called their country Arya, Iran, and Iranzamin (Land of Iran; 'zamin' is the literal word for the land in Persian) since the time of Zoroaster (1000 BC).

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Rewjeo
  • 1430

Persia (and also Farsi) come from the region of Pars/Fars, whose rulers conquered their neighbors and established the "Persia" the Greeks knew. The west stuck with that Greek term for a very long time.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/tim981145

China in Chinese is 中國 (zhōngguó). It means the land of the middle (中 = middle, 國 = land)

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/juliet569059

America comes from the explorer Amerigo Vespucci

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Coregame3

And Amerigo is from German "Emerich" which can mean "Brave/Good/Home ruler"

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/This_Dark_Soul

And if he'd had his way, the country would have been Italian. ;)

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Cyberchipz

I was taught in school that America, as was stated above, was named after the first person to discover this land Amerigo Vespucci. Ironically now we claim it was the Vikings that first discovered America and yet, there were native Americans living here at that time too (incorrectly labeled 'Indians').

And so, for those who study it; the first to populate or discover the land is now under contention and geneology shows us that the first people of the land came by sea, for the Americas meaning all of the Western continent via various islanders, and via the land mass that once connected Eastern Asia through Alaska (which give origins for most of the geneology for the original indigenous population, Native Americans (or Indians - politically incorrect) . In spite of all this information, there is still one gene pool yet to be identified in the indigenous population which is speculated to be the actual original inhabitants and related to "Clovis" people whose origins are not known. (Some speculate Extraterrestrials)

So, in the end, I suppose being named after the explorer Amerigo is as good as any; or perhaps we should change it to "Clovia" for the Clovis people, or perhaps "Orionia" or "Polaria" for Orion Nebula or Polaris, the north star. All in fun folks, all in fun! :-)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/baerghest

Well, the Clovis culture probably did not call itself that, since it was named after a findspot near a town in New Mexico named for a Frankish king. The king died in 511 AD, the town was founded in 1906, so the name is significantly later than the culture. In any case, Clovis did not call his own realm "Clovia", but "France"...

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

Hola todos,

I will talk a bit about Spain I wasn't really sure how it got its name so I had to google it.

"Spain was first called Iberia {makes sense because of the Iberian peninsula} a name given to it by its Iberian inhabitants (from North Africa). The name was supposedly based on the Iberian word for river, Iber. They reached Spain around 6000 b.c. When the Greeks arrived on Spanish soil around 600 b.c. they referred to the peninsula as Hesperia, meaning "land of the setting sun." When the Carthaginians came around 300 b.c. they called the country Ispania (from Sphan, "rabbit"), which means "land of the rabbits." The Romans arrived a century later and adopted the Carthaginian name of the country, calling it Hispania. Later, this became the present day Spanish name for the country, España. Thus, because of the Romans and their language, the rabbits won over the sunset and over the river."

Spain is a really interesting country to study because they have influences from the Romans (you can still see a few Roman ruins today in Spain), Middle Eastern/Islamic influence from the Moors (North African Muslims), and have a strong Catholic influence like many other countries in Europe.

If anyone else has interesting facts about Spain please let me know, I would love to hear them.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/SASSYandsisters.

But didn't the Muslims call Spain, Al Andalos? * _ *

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

Thanks Sassyandsisters, I looked that up and they did call Spain Al Andalos.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/SASSYandsisters.

OML I'm right for the 1st time in 4 ever! Take a pic guys! ;D

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

Yes. That is from where the modern day region of Andalucía is named. However, much like the earlier concept of España as a region, rather than a centralized political unit, Al-Andalus was the region, while there were several political units, culminating in the Caliphate of Córdoba, which later fragmented into the smaller taifas, the last of which was Granada.

If we want to go even further back, the name Al Andalus may possibly relate to the Vandals, a germanic people that had migrated to Hispania at the time the Western Roman Empire was starting to crumble. The Vandals were subjugated by the Visigoths, which were in turn defeated by the Umayyads.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

There is a lot of further reading for folks interested in the etymology of Spain and the name for the Spanish language. The terms "España" and "españoles" are older than their moder usage. They used to refer to the region of the Iberian peninsula rather than a single political or religious unit. Thus, the "Kingdoms of Spain" at one time were considered to be Castilla, León, Portugal, Aragón (Catholic) and Granada (Muslim). The use of "España" for a single political unit is relatively modern, when the different kingdoms under a personal union were tranformed into a unitary state. Spain is and has been a country of several nationalities and languages, ranging from the fascinating Euskera to the only Romance language written with Arabic script, the extinct Mozárabe.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hispania

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Names_given_to_the_Spanish_language

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mozarabic_language

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basque_language

Enjoy!!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AndresGarner

Thanks for the links

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Very interesting!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Erika_Marins

Hi, I was studying spanish for short time but I found very interesting that the last surname is actually given by the mother.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

I believe that in Iceland, sons take the father's surname, and daughters take the mother's surnane. Apparently this causes so much confusion that the phone book is listed by first name, not the family name!

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Names can be shortened now for simplicity, at least for women - so I've noticed. For example the famous Icelandic athlete/actress Ragga Ragnarsdóttir often goes by Ragga Ragnars now.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/RayEstonSm
April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/JulesF.

The word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Cale or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic deity and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River (present-day Vila Nova de Gaia), which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, and in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale (Port of Cale). During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale.

The name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, and by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho, the Minho flowing along what would become the northern Portugal-Spain border. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugale was already referred to as Portugal.

The precise etymology of the name Cale is somewhat mysterious, although the most plausible origin points to Cale being a Celtic name, like many others found in the region. Indeed, the word cale or cala meant "port", an "inlet" or "harbour", and implied the existence of an older Celtic harbour. Furthermore, today's Gaelic word for harbour is indeed "Cala".Some argue it is the stem of Gallaecia, again of Celtic derivation. Another theory claims it derives from the word Caladunum.

In any case, the particle Portu in the word Portucale was used as the basis of Porto, the modern name for the city located on the site of the ancient city of Cale at the mouth of the Douro River. And port became the English name of the wine actually produced further inland, in the Upper Douro Valley region, but exported through Porto. The name Cale is today reflected in Gaia (Vila Nova de Gaia), a city on the south bank of the river.

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/DragonPolyglot

The name of Sweden comes from a Dutch loanword that borrowed a Norse term. It has a similar entomology as the Swedish word “Svierge” (Sweden in Swedish). “Zweden” is Dutch for “Swedes” (Swede + dative plural) and the term Swede came from “Sviar” (a Germanic term which might have meant “oneself”). The term was first used in English in the 17th century.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Azouras

A few addenda:

  1. Sweden in Swedish is Sverige.

  2. The Norse term you're referring to is probably Svíþjóð.

  3. The Swedish name (Sverige) likely comes from another Norse name, namely Svíaríki (or in more modern Swedish: Svea rike). This means Realm of the Svear. Though one should note that it wasn't only the Svear who formed what came to be Sweden.

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Ken482461

Interesting and fun topic. The language Papiamento or Papiamentu is spoken in the Leeward Dutch Caribbean islands, near the South American, northern coast. Papiamento was born during the colonization period when Dutch, English, Spanish, Portuguese, African and the natives (in this case Caiquetios and not Indians as they are wrongly called to date), came together and had to find a way to talk (papia) with each other. Papiamentu was thus born, it is a mixture of all the above-mentioned languages and it literally means: talking or speaking. The verb to talk or to speak is translated as: papia. It is one of three official languages (the others being Dutch and English) on these islands, where most people also speak Spanish. Papiamentu (Curacao version) or Papiamento (Aruba version) is also taught in certain universities in Europe and the USA. So, ban papia Papiamentu means: let's speak Papiamentu. Literally it means: let's speak speaking. Let's talk talking.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/LuciaAlex

Esperanto is (designed to be) a world language; not from a single country, but the name itself has a beautiful meaning on its own: If you would translate it to English it would mean "one who hopes".

Zamenhof, who created the language, did not choose it as the name of the language, but used it originally only as his pseudonym, Dr. Esperanto. But speakers liked the name, and so it replaced the original term Zamenhof used to call his language, "lingvo internacia" (international language)

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Moira582602

Wales is an old English word that means more or less, "these idiots over there." The old Welsh word for Wales; Cymru means "us." or So I was told by one of my Welsh tutors.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/DragonPolyglot

Well, not exactly. Wikipedia states:

“The English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root (singular Walh, plural Walha), which was itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, and Wēalas when referring to their lands. The modern names for some Continental European lands (e.g. Wallonia, Wallachia and Valais) and peoples (e.g. the Vlachs via a borrowing into Old Church Slavonic) have a similar etymology.”

Walhaz is assumed to be Proto-Germanic for “foreigner”, and the term has since been assimilated and evolved in many languages for various uses. In its use for Wales in particular, the term has been associated with the Celtics in France (Gall at the time) and the Anglo-Saxons simply associated the term with the Celtic language speakers. The “wall” part of Cornwall has the same entomology (“Corn” coming from “kernou”, meaning “horn”, referring to the peninsula where the Cornish people live). Cymru (Wales) and Cymry (Welsh people) come from the Brythonic word “combrogi”, meaning “fellow countrymen”.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/TrevorHuxham

“France” means “Land of the Franks,” referring to the Germanic tribe that invaded and settled in the northern half of Roman Gaul in the early Middle Ages.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Just to add (according to Etymonline): "frank" meant free, liberal, and generous. In other words, before the US, France was the first "home of the free". :)

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

It was named Gallia in Latin because it was settled by Gauls. Franks came later and gave their own name for it.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Rewjeo
  • 1430

And yet "gallic" might be totally unrelated to Gallia, instead coming from the same root as Wales and Vlach, meaning "foreigners".

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Gallia#Etymology_2 nope https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Gallus#Latin

Probably from *galn- which apparently meant 'to be able', maybe 'warrior' in the native Celtic language. Gaul though, that's another matter.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Rewjeo
  • 1430

From what I've seen, there's no agreement as to the origin of "gallic." I've come across at least three different etymologies, and different places list different ones as the most likely.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/leorso

I'm pretty sure Brazil got its name from the Brazilwood tree. This tree is named like that because of its color, ember, which is "brasa". The complete name of Brazil is "Terra do Brazil" meaning "Land of Brazil" (Land of Ember Wood).

P.s Feel free to correct me if I'm wrong.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/baerghest

Strangely, there is an old claim that it was named after the Irish legendary land Hy Braesil. This theory seems to be rejected today.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/This_Dark_Soul

Not really a country.. but Hawaii. Named after it's largest island: Hawai'i. It's said that a figure from Hawaiian myth, Hawai'iloa, named the islands after himself as he was the first to discover them. Since the true meaning of the word has been lost in history, many believe Hawai'i came from the Polynesian word for "homeland" - Owhyhee. "HA" is 'breath of life', "WAI" is 'fresh water' or 'living waters', and "I" is the concept of a supreme God. Hawaii's real name is Hawike. The Europeans originally called it the Sandwich Islands after the Earl of Sandwich when Captain James Cook found them.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

Maybe not a country, but a nation with its own language. Thanks for the info!

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

1

Hawaiian sunset peeping from the sea

Smiles and says Aloha to his sweetheart Hawaii

The drowsy islands slumber one by one

Close their sleepy eyelids say goodnight to the sun

2

Then Hawaii like millions of times before

Blossoms in her lover's arms once more

Too soon the sunrise will wake her from her sleep

So until tomorrow, sleep Hawaii sleep.


I like very much the movie ("Blue Hawaii") and songs from it.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

Ukraine did not get its name from being 'the border country of Poland and Russia'. The distinction between o and u exists even in modern Ukrainian and Russian, with o meaning 'around' and u meaning 'at' or 'in'. Meanwhile kraina means 'country', not 'edge' in Old East Slavic https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/краина#Old_East_Slavic

The actual meaning of Ukraine is 'homeland', by saying that it means 'border country' you are actually perpetrating a Russian imperialist myth. (The edge or krai part comes from an area having a border, a specific and separated parcel of land, missing the 'na' changes the meaning. It's Ukraine, not Okraine or Ukrai)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Theron126

This is the Ukrainian nationalist view. Like just about everything to do with Russia and Ukraine (and including the name of Russia as well), this topic is very much politicized and extremely controversial. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Name_of_Ukraine#Etymology

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

If Russians said the sky was pink, saying that the sky is blue would be 'the Ukrainian nationalist view'

https://qr.ae/TWTlfa

Have a nice list of acts by Russia to suppress Ukrainian language, culture, and identity:

1677 Order of Patriarch Joakim to remove from the Ukrainian books all the sheets "not similar to the books of Moscow".

1689 The Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is forbidden to publish books without Moscow Patriarchal permission: "... the book must be sent to us before printing, at all costs, that you would not have dared to reprint newly-published books ...".

In 1713, Muscovy, under the orders of Peter I, appropriates our name Rus (the Greek name of Rus' sounds like 'Russia'). In this way, appropriating our millennial historical and spiritual heritage.

1720 Order of Tsar Peter I: "In the Kiev-Pechersk and Chernigov printing presses, there is no need to print any books ... old books should be checked before the press, so that ... there were no Ukrainian language in them."

On Dec. 20, 1720, Peter I issued a decree to the Kyiv Provincial Governor Golitsyn to: "... in all the monasteries remaining in the Russian state, to examine and collect the ancient letters of honor and other curiosity letters of the original, as well as books of historical, manuscript and printed."

1721 Decree on the censorship of Ukrainian books.

1724 Moscow censorship imposed a thousand rubles a fine on the archimandrite of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra for the fact that the church book "Triode" printed there, was "not entirely similar to the Russian one." The Synod ordered the Chernihiv printing house to be transferred to Moscow.

1729 The order of Peter II to rewrite all the state decrees and orders from the Ukrainian language into Russian.

1731 The request of Queen Anne Ivanovna to remove the books of the old Ukrainian press, and "to introduce science into their own Russian language". In a secret instruction to the ruler of Ukraine, Prince O. Shakhovskyi she ordered (1734) in every way to prevent Ukrainians from marrying Poles and Byelorussians, "and to encourage them to mix with the Great Russians."

In 1740, the Russian Empress Anna Ivanivna established a government of the hetman government under the direction of Moscow Prince O. Shakhovskyi and introduced Russian in the office work on the territory of Ukraine. The censuses of 1740 - 1748 indicate that in seven regiments of the Hetmanate there were more than a thousand schools, and almost all of them taught in Ukrainian. In 1804 a royal decree was issued, which prohibited teaching in the Ukrainian language. The results of national oppression immediately affected the state of education in Ukraine: already the census of 1897 showed that there were only 13 literate per 100 people.

1748 Order of the St. Petersburg Synod to the Kiev Metropolitan Samuel Myloslavsky to introduce in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy and in all schools of Ukraine teaching of the Russian language, which resulted in the disappearance of 866 Ukrainian schools on the Left Bank.

1750 After the abolition of the Office of the Ministerial Board of Little Russian Affairs in the city of Glukhiv, all the archiv documents were withdrawn and transported to Russia. The archives of the Zaporozhian Sich, found during the "destruction of Sich by the lieutenant-general Techelia in the chest under the throne of the Sich the Church," was moved to the Moscow branch of the General Archives of the General Staff.

In 1759 the Synod issued an order to remove Ukrainian primers from schools.

1763 Decree of Catherine II on the prohibition of teaching in the Ukrainian language at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.

1764 The instructions of Catherine II to the prince O. Vyazemsky about the Russification of Ukraine, the Baltic states, Finland and the Smolensk region, "if the intelligent people will be elected heads of these provinces. If there is no hetman in Little Russia, then we must try to make Hetman's time and name disappear ... " Catherine II's abolition of Ukrainian Hetmanate, and with it, the liquidation of Ukrainian educational and cultural institutions and the removal of Ukrainian-speaking officials from the authorities.

1764 Elimination of Catherine II of the Cossack system in Slobozhanshchyna and Cossack schools.

In 1765 the Synod issued a strict decree to the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra to print only the books printed and approved by the Synod in the Moscow printing house.

1769 Prohibition of the Synod of the ROC to print and use Ukrainian primer.

1775 Destruction of Zaporizhzhya Sich and closure of Ukrainian schools at the regimental Cossack offices.

1780-1783 gg. The first enslavement of Ukrainian peasants in Russia-occupied lands of Ukraine. There was no serfdom in Ukraine before.

1780 Burning of the bookstore of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, which was gathered for more than 150 years and was one of the richest libraries of Ukraine.

In 1784, according to the instructions of the Synod, the Metropolitan of Kiev had been ordered that in all the churches the clergy and priests read the prayers and governed the service of God "in a voice peculiar to the Russian dialect." The Synod ordered the Metropolitan of Kiev and Galician Samuel to punish students and dismiss the teachers of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy for the use of non-Russian language.

1784 Order of Catherine II in all churches of the empire to rule the service of God in Russian. Russian language has been introduced in all schools of Ukraine.

In 1785, the Synod again commanded the Metropolitan of Kiev to control the Lavra printing press, so that there was no difference in books with the Moscow edition, and in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy to immediately introduce a system of education legitimized for the entire empire.

1804 A Tzar decree was issued that prohibited the teaching of the Ukrainian language.

1832 Reorganization of education in the Right-Bank Ukraine on the imperial principles with the only Russian language in educational process.

1833 Moscow soldiers ordered by the letter from St. Petersburg on the same day confiscated from all the mosques of the Crimea written documents, books, historical manuscripts in the Tatar, Turkish and Arabic languages, among which there were many materials about the relations of Rus-Ukraine with the southern peoples.

1834 Establishment of the University of Kiev for the purpose of the so-called Russification of the South-Western Territory.

1839 Elimination of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in the Right-Bank Ukraine occupied by Russia. Hundreds of Christians and many priests were killed, and 593 of them were exiled to Siberia. In exchange, supervisory officials in cassocks, were sent from Moscow. Valuev Circular https://ru.wikisurce.org/wiki/%D0%92%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%83%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D1%86%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%BA%D1%83%D0%BB%D1%8F%D1%80

Valuev Circular, 18 July, 1863 This Jesuitic Circular claimed that many people, including “malorussians” (as they called the Ukrainians), expressed concern about the fact that many textbooks (primers, grammars, geographies) were published in Ukrainian language. Those who complained, as if considered that it was harmful for educational process. And they allegedly stated that the Ukrainian language is NOT necessary and NEVER existed. So to meet the demands of those people the good Russian state had forbidden publishing of any books in Ukrainian with the exception for entertaining books. Since it is impossible to deny the existence of this circular, apologists usually respond: - the Ukrainians themselves asked the Government to ban publishing books in Ukrainian; - the Government did not claim that the Ukrainian language did not exist, the government simply repeated the words of the people who addressed the government; - not all the books were forbidden to publish, entertaining books were allowed; It reminded me an anecdote. The Soviet leaders liked to tell that they met every demand of the Soviet people and did not do anything without such demands. So the anecdote told that in the evening news release it was reported that from tomorrow, due to the numerous requests of the workers and peasants, the price of sausage will be raised. Decree of Ems http://movahistory.org.ua/wiki/%...

Decree of Ems, signed by Alexander II in the German city of Bad Ems on May 18, 1876. The Ems Decree prohibited: - import books written in the Ukrainian language into the territory of the Russian Empire from abroad without special permission; - publish original works and translate from foreign languages. An exception was made for “historical documents and monuments” and “works of elegant literature”, with a number of reservations and subject to prior censorship; - put Ukrainian theatrical performances (the ban was lifted in 1881), print notes with Ukrainian texts; - organize concerts with Ukrainian songs; - teach in Ukrainian in elementary schools (“primary schools”).

1884 The prohibition by Alexander III of Ukrainian theatrical performances in all Little Russian provinces.

1888 Decree of Alexander III on the prohibition of the use of the Ukrainian language in official institutions and usage of Ukrainian names during baptism.

1892 Prohibition to translate books from Russian into Ukrainian.

1895 Prohibition of the Principal Department for Printing to issue Ukrainian children's books.

January 26, 1918 Capturing Kyiv, the Moscow-Bolshevik interventionists shot during several days had shot about 5 thousand people who spoke Ukrainian, wore Ukrainian national clothes or who had a portrait of T. Shevchenko hanging in the house ... During the time of their stay in Kiev, the Bolsheviks did not only destroyed many houses, but also destroyed priceless cultural, artistic, architectural and other assets, and tortured thousands of innocent people.

1922-1934 Wave of violence against the unique and vivid phenomenon of Ukrainian and world culture - kobzarstva. Ukrainian national musical instruments - kobza, bandura and lyre - were declared nationalistic and destroyed. Instead, tens of thousands of primitive ("well-understood") balalaiki and accordions are imported to Ukraine. The Kobzari (musucians who plays kobza) are proclaimed beggars and brutally persecuted, a lot of them were killed.

1970 The order to get scientifical degrees only in Russian.

1972 The prohibition by the party officials to celebrate the anniversary of the I. Kotlyarevsky Museum in Poltava.

1973 It is prohibited to mark the anniversary of the work of I. Kotlyarevsky "Aeneid".

  1. Postanova of the Central Committee of the CPSU "On Preparations for the 50th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics", which for the first time proclaims the creation of a "new historical community - the Soviet people", an official course on denationalization.

1978 Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On Measures to Further Improve the Study and Presentation of the Russian Language in the Union Republics" ("Brezhnev Circular").

1983 The Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On Additional Measures to Improve the Study of the Russian Language in Secondary Schools and Other Educational Institutions of the Union Republics" (Andropov Decree), which in particular introduced a payment of 16% of the allowance for teachers of the Russian language and literature; The directive of the Collegium of the Ministry of Education of the USSR "On additional measures to improve the study of the Russian language in secondary schools, pedagogical institutions, preschool and out-of-school institutions of the republic," aimed at increasing the rate of Russification.

1984 The beginning in the Ukrainian SSR of payments of 15% higher salaries to teachers of the Russian language compared with teachers of the Ukrainian language.

1984 Order of the Ministry of Culture of the USSR on the transfer of clerical work in all museums of the Soviet Union into the Russian language.

1989 - the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU on "legislative consolidation of the Russian language as a nationwide".

1990 - adoption by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of the Law on the languages ​​of the peoples of the USSR, where the Russian language was granted official status.

Congratulations if you read all of that. You should maybe see how willing the Russians are to be extremely 'petty' in their attempts to destroy Ukraine and its culture

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/SASSYandsisters.

I congratulate anyone who had the energy to read that essay ^

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Theron126

I'm not looking for an argument, I don't have a problem with your view being stated here, and it wasn't me who downvoted you, by the way. Just trying to give a more complete picture. The "borderlands" etymology is the generally accepted scholarly view outside of Ukraine and also by a number of Ukrainian sources. It's far from being just the theory of Russian propagandists.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

Those scholars have in most cases just accepted the Russian view because they know no better. De facto there are only two 'opinions', the Russian one and the Ukrainian one, since these are the only two with experts on East Slavic languages past and present.

As Ukraine gains an ever greater influence on the world stage, academics in the outside world will accept the weight of historical documents and sources proving the 'separated parcel of land (on which we live)' etymology. The 'everyone outside Ukraine accepts it' is an appeal to the masses fallacy.

I'm also not looking for an argument, but I think it's important for Ukrainians to challenge imperialist lies where they see them repeated by people who simply know no better (and are not malicious, because the malicious are inconvincible)

April 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Oh, I understand your grievance and wish you'd better be occupied further with your own history. You know it better than me. So, no comments.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Myrrael

(and including the name of Russia as well)

Aye, hence why I didn't go any further, myself, about Russia.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/chip284801

I thought Ukrainian was just a dialect of Russian ... [ducks head]

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Theron126

I hope this is a joke...

(just in case it isn't - it's somewhat understandable for Russian speakers, but very definitely a distinct language)

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/chip284801

да, это шутка

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Ronald-B-Weasley

France: The name France comes from Latin Francia ("land of the Franks"). ... Modern France is still called Frankreich in German and similar names in some other Germanic languages (such as Frankrijk in Dutch), which means "Frank Reich", the Realm of the Franks.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

I waited for somebody to write somethig about Poland. It seems Polish people did not see this topic. So I decided to write it for them 'cause "Polak, Węgier — dwa bratanki" ("Pole and Hungarian brothers be").

Poland is called after the name of a slavic tribe "polanie". But in some languages ("Lengyelország" -Hungarian, "Lenkija" - Lithuanian) this country is called after the name of another tribe living in those lands "lędzianie".

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/SASSYandsisters.

Morocco => Al Maghrib (in Arabic which means sunset) - last Arabic country for the sun to set on which also links to the Muslim prayer (also called Al maghrib) which is made at sunset. ;p

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Judit294350

And the Maghrib is all of north Africa west of Egypt.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Good morning, Judit! Nice to see you. Usually you come here later. In my opinion, you're a good conversationalist.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Sorokabulo

The name Brazil is a shortened form of Terra do Brasil, land of Brazil, a reference to brazilwood, given in the early 16th century to the territories leased to the merchant consortium led by Fernão de Loronha for commercial exploitation of brazilwood for the production of wood dyes for the European textile industry.

The term for the brazilwood tree in Portuguese, pau-brasil, is derived from brasa (ember), a reference to the colour, formed from medieval Latin brasa, from Old French brese, "ember, glowing charcoal", in turn from a West Germanic *brasa)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Sorokabulo

Sorocaba means "torn earth" and comes from Tupi Guarani where "Sorok" means to tear and "aba" is a substantivado suffix, Sorocaba belonged to Araçoiaba da Serra that was divided by the general governor of the time.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Laderlappen

"Sweden" in swedish means "Sverige". According to Wikipedia, it comes from the word "Svearike". "Svea" (Svealand) is the name of the historical core region of Sweden, whose inhabitants were members of a germanic tribe. They were called "Svear". "Rika" means "realm". So "Sverige" could be translated as "Realm of the Swedes". "Svear" is also translated as "one's own (tribesmen)" Additionally, there was a north germanic seafolk called "Suiones", which was mentioned by Publius Cornelius Tacitus, a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. Those sea people could be the ancestors of the "Svear", but this is an unconfirmed and disputed assumption.

There are a few theories about the ethymology of Scandinavia.

  1. It is named after "Skaði" (also Skadi or Skathi), the norse goddess of (bow)hunting and the winter. She is also associated with skiing and mountains. "Skaði" could mean "shadow", it's also possible that it has been associated with the underworld.

  2. It comes from the word "Skaðinaujō", "Skaðin" meaning "danger", "damage" or "harm" and "aujō" meaning "island" or "peninsula". So according to this theory, "Scandinavia" means "dangerous island", which probably refers to the dangerous ocean currents of the peninsula "Falsterbo", located at the south-western tip of Sweden. The word "Skaðin" ("danger") could also refer to the strong north winds, therefore "Scandinavia" means "Island of the north wind".

Like is said, I used Wikipedia as source, so if you find any mistakes, feel free too correct me!

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

A country is usually named by the ethnic name of the people who settles in it. There are exceptions, of course (for example: United States of America).

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/baerghest

Only about a quarter of the soveriegn nation states that exist today are named for the ethnic groups in them. This seems to be a pattern manily in Europe, Central and South East Asia. In Polynesia, Oceania and the Americas, names are overwhelmingly descriptive ("Argentina") or commemorative ("Bolivia", "San Salavador", "New Zealand"). An awful lot of the ethnic names seems formed by the Habsburgs and Soviets.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AaronTBD

On Duolingo or not on Duolingo

If it just means on Duolingo: It would be German In German Germany is Deutschland and Deutsch represents people literally that's it. Outside of Duolingo: It would be Georgian In Georgian Georgia is საქართველო and ქართველული means the Georgian people.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/McPwny

in korean 한국 is derived from chinese hanja, 한국 = 韓國. the 한 is a reference to the three kingdoms of korea from old times, the 국 is just chinese for "country"

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

What about 조선, 대조선국, 대한제국? Korea seems to have different names.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/McPwny

조선 is derived from 朝鮮, it was a period of time and dynasty that existed from about 1400 AC until 1910, when it was overthrown by japanese occupation. to this day north korean people still refer to korean as 조선말.

대조선국 is just adding 대 (大) and 국 (國) making the word mean "country of the great 조선" again, just referring to the 조선 period, and the country as it was.

대한제국, (大韓帝國) means "great korean empire" i guess this was one emperors attempt at renaming korea in 1897. it was short lived though because again, japan toppled the whole thing in 1910 where it continually committed horrible atrocities against korean people right up until 1945 which you might recognize as the year japan was nuked by america.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Thanks.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/knives_out

In English, "Norway" is pretty straightforward, I guess. It basically means "the way to the north". The modern Norwegian spelling of the county, Norge, is just a chain of adaptations of the initial form "Norðwegr".

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/bobthesane

Makes sense when you look at the coastline.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Romania once was a part of the Roman Empire and it was called "Dacia" in Latin. The name of Romania (România) comes from the Romanian "român", which is a derivative of the Latin adjective Romanus (Roman). But now Romanians think to rename their country into Dacia again for not to be associated with gypsies (roma). There are many gypsies in Romania and Romanians are strongly offended to be associated with them.

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HeyMarlana

Of course if we consider Rome, and where the name Rome comes from. According to Wiktionary: In Roman mythology, the name was said to derive from Romulus, one of the founders of the city and its first king.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

Poor old Remus. The 'Benz' and 'Davidson' of the ancient world!

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HooSteveK

Nicely done! So worth a lingot :)

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Songve

Vietnam, people of the south. Like the language, culture and customs, that is the simplified definition. The deeper meaning requires peeling back the years of history.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Roman_Huczok

Actually it's 'Southern Yue', with Yue referring to the original inhabitants of everywhere south of the Yangtze near enough. A little similar to the term 'barbarian', the Chinese weren't very interested in differences between people. Originally Yue was written 戉, with the symbol of an axe, and supposedly came from the name of a chieftain, though these 'place name from people name' etymologies are nearly always false. Maybe Yue, originally *ɢʷat, was the endonym of a now lost people group

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/HelsinkiVinicius

Denmark in Danish is ‘Danmark’ which some say is to do with the mythological king ‘Dan’.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/baerghest

That's a false etymology, goin back to Saxo (1200s, medieval propaganda, whoo-hoo). States named for kings are actually quite rare, Alsach-Lorraine being one of the very few examples in Europe. The ethnonym "Dane" is far and away older than the placename "Denmark", and may relate to Indo-European territorial goddesses (Dánu, Don, Tanaïs ...). The ending -mark means "borderland".

Incidentally, Medieval scholars did this sort of thing all the time: the Irish, calling themselves Scots, claimed descend from Scotta, supposedly a daughter of Pharao in the the Old Testament, the British claimed descend from Brutus (in the Aenid, not in the senate), and so on. The Edda suggests that the Asir gods were named for Asia, and that the city of Troy was named for Odin's son "Thór or Trór", the only instance ever of anyone calling him that. Clearly the myth of Romulus threw a very long shadow, and any phonetic resemblance, however superficial, could be used to construct a myth.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/DavidZeev

Israel means "struggles with God" in biblical Hebrew.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

From what I have found, Portugal is literally "port-port". The name is apparently a combination of the Roman "portus" and "calle" or "cala", derived from a Celtic word for port. "Portus Cala" was then called "Portucale" by the Visigoths, which then evolved into "Portugale" and the modern Portugal.

Catalunya has different theories. It is suggested that it is derived from "Goth-Alania", but an apparently recent theory is that it derives from an adopted exonym from the time of Muslim rule in the Iberian peninsula. The Muslims would refer to raiders from the north as "qattāllūn", or "killers".

April 14, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/ArpsTnd

My country is named after a Spanish king :/

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

The Philippines, I presume?

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/ArpsTnd

Edit: I wasn't reading the instruction. It said target language. My bad lols.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

There is one country named after a day of the week, the Dominican Republic!

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

This is not accurate. The country is named after its capital, which itself is named after Saint Dominic, founder of the Dominican Order, a monastic order within Catholicism. Saint Dominic happens to translate to Santo Domingo, coinciding with the name of the day. The adjective form "dominicano/na" in Spanish (Dominican) means 'belonging to Dominic' as opossed to "dominical", which means 'belonging to domingo (Sunday)'.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/ArpsTnd

I thought it was named after the Dominicans. But, maybe, it was really named after the word "domingo"

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Zig_Zag_Wanderer

I'm pretty certain Columbus named after the day he found it, which was Sunday. He was Italian.

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/blanktheman

The name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages.

Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa,[20][21] while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".[22]

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Guaybana_elBravo

The Romans used to call the immediate northen portion of the continent and the people west of the Nile as "Afri", so Africa is literally "land of the Afri". So come to think of it, South Africa is named (at least in the European languages) from what the Romans knew at the opposite end of the continent.

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Attila829415

Where does the name Cuba come from? I wondered and I explored and that's what I found:

https://www.quora.com/Where-does-the-name-Cuba-come-from

Están aquí algunos cubanos? Que pensáis de eso?

April 15, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/dinodinama

hi or should i say hola mucho gusto

April 16, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Kristoffer580265

Well, it's not really a country, but Esperantists are said to all collectively make up a place called Esperantujo. This is formed by taking the language's name, Esperanto, and adding an -uj- (meaning "container", as in the Esperantists are contained within Esperantujo) before the O.

"Esperanto" itself comes from Doctor L.L. Zamenhof, the inventor of the language. When he first published his new language, he used the pseudonym "Doktoro Esperanto". "Doktoro" is just the word for "Doctor", since he was an eye doctor. Esperanto is formed from three parts: - the word "espero", which means "hope" - the affix "-ant-", which means "person" - the suffix "-o", added at the end to show the word is a noun.

This means that "Doktoro Esperanto" translates to "the hopeful doctor" or "Doctor Hoping-person". And it means "Esperantujo" translates as "the place that contains hopeful people".

April 17, 2019
Learn a language in just 5 minutes a day. For free.