"The color of his hands is red."
Translation:उसके हाथों का रंग लाल है।
The bindu and candrabindu aren't interchangeable. Before another consonant, the bindu functions as न, म, ण, or ङ depending on the consonant following it. This is why you see "Hindi" spelled as हिन्दी or हिंदी; both are acceptable spellings. By the same token, रङ्ग is theoretically another spelling for रंग though I've never seen it. (EDIT: Thanks vinay92 for the correction regarding न versus ङ)
The candrabindu on the other hand only indicates nasalization with no implicit consonant. The only place you'll see a bindu where a candrabindu is expected is on vowels with ascending strokes, and this is purely for the sake of space. Hence we have हाँ (candrabindu) because there's no ascending stroke in the way, but नहीं (bindu) because of the curly bit of the ī would make a candrabindu hard to see properly.
You might see stuff like हां instead of हाँ. it's not wrong per se; I've been told the difference is similar to color vs colour. Pick one and stick with it.
You're spot-on for the most part but रंग is not रन्ग, it's रङ्ग
ङ (articulated in the same place as क) and ञ (articulated in the same place as च) are two other nasals in Devanagari in addition to न, म, and ण but they are very rare in Hindi
Also, things like हां instead of हाँ are just lazy typesettings. It is always pronounced as a chandrabindu at the end of words. But you're right that using the bindu in the middle of a word in place of the chandrabindu is sort of like 'color' and 'colour'. Note that the reverse -using chandrabindu in place of the bindu - is almost never done.
Thank you! I somehow only got the memo that the anusvara/bindu was used in place of a chandrabindu when space issues arise.
Since you seem to not mind digging into it, I would love input on some other related questions I have...
So is the anusvara/bindu also meant to indicate nasalization in addition to the consonant?
For example, I can say "Hindi" in my normal midwestern American accent which is not nasal at all or I can say "Hindi" and really emphasize making the first "i" extra nasal. Which would be more correct?
Also, I've noticed some Devanagari alphabets including अं and आँ with the implication that अं is more like an N and आँ is more like an M (as at https://www.omniglot.com/writing/hindi.htm). What's up with that?
Also, is the anusvara/bindu always some sort of N and never an M in Hindi?
P.S. I recently visited Darjeeling and noted with much excitement that I saw it spelled दार्जीलिङ !
In Hindi, the anusvaar (which is always represented by the bindu) just indicates a nasal consonant. So, your first pronunciation of 'Hindi' with the consonant 'n' but no nasal vowel would be correct.
The anunaasik (usually represented by the chandrabindu but with a bindu when there is no space above the shirorekha) represents a nasalised vowel. So, you'll have to sound out the vowel with your nose as well as your mouth. You don't have to insert a nasal consonant in this case.
Eg: कौआ हंस को देख कर हँस रहा है। (The crow is laughing looking at the swan). The first हंस (swan) is pronounced 'hans'. The second हँस (laugh) is pronounced 'has' but with the vowel 'a' nasalised.
The anusvaar introduces a nasal consonant that is pronounced with the same place of articulation as the letter that follows it. For example, in हिंदी it is pronounced as न (dental nasal) because द is a dental consonant, in अंडा it is pronounced as ण (retroflex nasal) because ड is a retroflex consonant, in लंबा it is pronounced as म (labial nasal) because ब is a labial consonant and so on.
It is just a pedagogical tool to include अं and अः (and sometimes अँ) in the list of vowels because then, you can make a direct connection between vowels and 'maatra's (diacritics).
अं is not always pronounced as an 'n' and अँ is definitely not an 'm'.
What might be confusing you is that in systems of romanising Hindi, the chandrabindu is usually represented by an 'm̐' or ṃ. This is just arbitrary and unrelated to the pronunciation.
दार्जीलिङ may have been in Nepali (which is also written with the Devanagari script). It's written and pronounced दार्जिलिंग in Hindi. ङ and ञ almost never occur on their own in Hindi.