https://www.duolingo.com/banshee100

Italian the word in

I'm confused as when to use it- sometimes it is acceptable and others it does not allow it..

April 28, 2019

3 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/mysmallworld

When it comes down to prepositions, every language seems to have its own rules. So, it is difficult to understand when to use what (when learning a new language), but with time you'll get the grasps of it. There is a VERY large number of expressions using in.

Prepositions form the variable part of a clause that connects two elements (sentences or words). In is one of them. It is a preposizione (propria) semplice (invariable). When it is placed before a definite article, it merges with the article itself, originating a preposizione articolata (formed by a preposition + the article): nel, nello, nella, nei, negli, nelle.

[they are called preposizioni proprie because they only function as prepositions]

In usually indicates a position in space or time or a way of being or of behaving.

Examples:

  • Ti aspetto in giardino. [position in space]

In is used with places that have a certain spatial extension: Abita in Italia. // Abitavo in campagna, ma ora abito in città.

To put evidence to the spatial extension of places (like small localities), also in particular expressions: In fondo alla strada (at the bottom of the street) // In cima al monte (at the top of the hill) // Sono in casa? (Are they home?) // L'ho visto in ufficio // Erano in chiesa

When it has the meaning of inside --> In sala non c'era quasi nessuno

In can be translated also with into and in in some cases (when it has the meaning ''from the outside to the inside''): Versare il latte in una tazza (To pour milk into a cup) // Loro guardarono nella stanza, ma non c'era nessuno. (They looked into the room, but there was no one there) // Mise la mano in tasca. (He put his hans into/in his pocket) // Cadde nell'/in acqua. (He fell into the water)

It can also be translated from into when there are verbs that indicate a transformation/a mutation: Circe trasformava gli uomini in beste (Circe changed men into beasts)

  • Ci rivedremo in autunno. [position in time]

with years, seasons, months and, usually, to indicate a period of time: L'ho fatto in due giorni (I did it in two days) / Nei giorni di mercato (on market days)

Also to indicate a specific moment: Nello stesso tempo (at the same time) / In quel giorno (that day)

  • Ama vivere in solitudine. [way of being]

  • Mi piace lavorare in gruppo. [way of behaving]

  • I miei zii vivono in campagna.

  • Controlla nello zaino. [nello: inside the backpack]

  • E' inciampato nel girarsi verso di lei. [by turning towards her, as he was turning towards her]


On (from English) can sometimes be translated also with in.

Examples:

  • He had a curios turban on his head: Aveva un curioso turbante in testa

  • Dinner is served: Il pranzo è in tavola (on the table)


To express a position in a place, in is used with the names of streets, squares, regions and nations. Instead, a is used with names of cities.

in via Quasimodo, in piazza Unità d’Italia, in Friuli, nel Molise, nel Lazio, in Sardegna, in Islanda, in Germania, in Inghilterra [Example: Andremo in Inghilterra l'estate prossima.]

a Milano, a Roma, a Venezia, a Londra, a Madrid, a Parigi


Other constructions:

  • in molti casi

  • mettere in moto (to put into motion)

  • di città in città / di giorno in giorno / di male in peggio / di corte in corte (in is associated with the preposition di to indicate a progressive passage/a transition)

  • in mano [in is used in the sense of ''wrapped'',''contained''. For example: Aveva un coltello in mano (he had a knife in his hand) / L'ho trovato in un libro (I found it in a book) / Era avvolto in un pezzo di carta gialla (It was wrapped up in a piece of yellow paper)]

  • avere fiducia in qualcuno (to have confidence in someone)

  • essere nei panni di qualcuno (to be in place of somebody)

  • scoppiare in lacrime (to burst into tears)

  • in nome di (in the name of)

  • nel negare [nel + a verb]


In is used with the infinitive when it means:

  • ''in the act of'': Si ferì la mano nel chiudere la porta/chiudendo la porta (in the act of closing the door)

  • ''in the moment'': Svenne nel sentire la notizia (On hearing the news she fainted)

  • ''while'': Si tagliò il dito nel lavorare in giardino (He cut his finger while working in the garden)


  • in vacanza

  • in punto di morte (on the point of death)

  • essere in preda al terrore (to be a prey of terror)

  • in quanto a me (as far as I am concerned)

  • in seguito (a) (later on, subsequently)

  • stare in piedi (to be standing)

  • in treno / in aereo [this preposition is used also to indicate a means of transport] --> MA a piedi (by foot)

  • andare in bicicletta [see above]

  • in esilio

  • un commerciante in pelli (a dealer in skins) / uno studente in [or di medicina] medicina (a medical student) --> [to indicate a specific activity]

  • Chiara Rossi in Bianchi (Chiara Rossi née Bianchi) [in can be used before the family name (of the husband) to indicate the maiden name]

  • in seta [to indicate the material]

  • L'ho avuto in dono/regalo (I had it as a present) --> In is used to translated as when it has the meaning of ''in quality of''/''as''.

  • Guardò in alto (He looked up) / Sta lì in alto (It is up there) / C'è una fontana lì in basso (There is a fountain down there) --> it is sometimes used together with adverbs

(See here)

(Source for part of the answer)

If you download this file, you can find a list with other examples.

April 28, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/ChevyBarnes05

You say 'in' in the title, and 'it' in the description.

April 28, 2019
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