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  5. "QongtaH Hoch jaghpu'."

"QongtaH Hoch jaghpu'."

Translation:All of the enemies are sleeping.

May 3, 2019



How do I know where to place Hoch? What is the rule regarding the word order to use Hoch in this sentence?


In this course, all cases of Hoch with a noun occur before the noun. Hoch also occurs as a noun, itself (without being combined with another noun). QongtaH Hoch "Everyone is sleeping." QongtaH Hoch jaghpu' "All the enemies are sleeping."

Hoch can also follow a noun, but it seems that may be for uncountable nouns (also called mass nouns). For example, nIn Hoch means, "all of the fuel", and QeHDaj Hoch means, "all of his anger". However, in this course we have only entered sentences with Hoch before the noun.

There is another note worth making for when you encounter Hoch outside of this course. We don't teach the difference in this course, but when Hoch is combined with a noun, the normally optional plural suffix becomes very important. If the noun lacks a plural suffix, it means, "each of the [nouns] (considered individually)": Hoch tlhIngan "each Klingon". If the noun has a plural suffix it means "all of the [nouns] (considered collectively)": Hoch tlhInganpu' "all the Klingons". It's a subtle difference and one we don't teach in this course, so "all" and "all of" are accepted for all uses of Hoch even when followed by a noun without a plural suffix.

In summary, in the current version of the course, when Hoch is combined with a noun it always comes before the noun and can always be translated as "all" or "all of".

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