Tinggal in context, Confusion about its uses and root meaning.
Tinggal =to stay meninggal dunia = to die (leave world?) Ketinggalan = to miss out
I'm confused about how tinggal works, as it seems the root word implies staying/remaining. But in some contexts to means to leave. Can anyone explain this?
Terimah Kasih untuk nasihat.
'tinggal' as a base word has several meanings.
(KBBI lists 11-12 different meanings/definitions)
It depends on the context what the word means in a sentence.
Please have a look at the example sentences in the KBBI definitions.
Those sentences provide the context for the various meanings/definitions.
'meninggal' is derived from this base word, but it only has one meaning :
'meninggal' = 'meninggal dunia' = to leave the world, to pass away, to die.
'ketinggalan' is formed by attaching the 'ke-an' affix to the base word.
'ketinggalan' can be a noun/verb, it is mostly used as a verb.
'ketinggalan' can have different meanings, depending on context.
(KBBI lists 7 different meanings/definitions)
Tinggal means to stay.
Meninggal = to die.
It's just a matter of seeing thing differently.
Meninggalkan = according to KBBI: '
to let it stay (still there, not taken away)'
membiarkan tinggal (tetap ada, tidak dibawa pergi, dan sebagainya).
Meninggalkan kami di sini.
leaves us here.
puts us to stay here
it's a nice word choice, isn't?
That bag is
left by him.
or, that bag is
put there to stay there by him
let us stay in this world (while she went away)
and this sentence, usually said in funeral speech:
...the deceased's family...
or ...the family that had been
'left (by the deceased) to stay'(in this world)...
You see, we dont say 'keluarga yang meninggalkan' but 'keluarga yang ditinggalkan'.
so... if someone meninggal dunia means that someone went to heaven (or hell--or just pit-black under the ground) but you stay here. You are 'ditinggalkan'.
If we check the word 'Ketinggalan' in KBBI:
"(4) Verba (kata kerja)
sudah ditinggalkan oleh (kereta api dan sebagainya)"
"(4) Verb (Verb)
has been let to stay [in the station while the train depart]
by (the train or others)"
Means that you don't go with the train, you don't go anywhere, you stay. (in Passive voice).
Tinggal = to stay
I've always thought of "meninggal dunia" as a shortened form of "meninggalkan dunia". The circumfix "me-kan" can form a causative verb, so "meninggalkan" means to cause something to stay (behind). In this case, the deceased is causing the world to stay behind as they leave.
The circumfix "ke-an" forms a passive verb, so "ketinggalan" means "being made to stay (behind)" or "being left behind" or "missing out".