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"Have you seen my book?"

Translation:क्या तुमने मेरी किताब देखी है ?

May 24, 2019



I learned that if the direct object takes को, then the transitive verb in the perfective tense is always masculine singular regardless of the gender/number of the object. Could one use को in this sentence? This would make it क्या आपने मेरी किताब को देखा‌ है? Although this is marked wrong by Duoling, would it be grammatically correct? Native speakers or grammar nerds, please.


Yes, the sentence is grammatically correct. But note that the meaning would be closer to 'Have you looked at my book'. Inanimate nouns like kitaab are usually made direct objects of verbs. So, when they're made indirect objects using को, it is to communicate a subtle difference in meaning.


Very interesting. You are the boss here Vinay.


Yes, that makes perfect sense. That is the level of answer I was looking for. I also start getting a clearer idea of when to use को from your comment on how the meaning changes slightly. (I would argue that किताब it is still a direct object, though, and using को with direct objects can make a subtle difference -- sorry for nitpicking...) Anyway: Thanks a l(ing)ot, you are the boss indeed, Vinay!


Here comes a begining of an answer. On the past tense, with indirect subject, the verb accord to the object, here, Kitab, feminin. Tell me if I am wrong please.


You are correct.


kiya tumne meri kitab dekha hei?

"if i use "dekha" instead of dekhi(as in the given answer by duolingo), will it be correct?"


No. It should be 'dekhi'. In the perfect tenses, this verb agrees with its object. Since kitab is feminine, the verb should also be in the feminine form - 'dekhi'.


then why "meri kitab" not "mera kitab"?

kitab is connected with "meri" or "dekhi" or both?


Both. You can break it down if you want.

The noun phrase is 'my book'. Since किताब is feminine, you need to use the feminine form of 'my'. Therefore, the noun phrase becomes 'मेरी किताब'.

The verb 'to see' in this case has to agree with its object. Its object is the noun phrase 'मेरी किताब' which is feminine so you need to use the feminine form of 'to see' which is देखी.


Is it because Kitab is feminine ?


Why is the verb on the feminine form ? Could it be deka hai ?


Kya tumne meri kitab dekha hain . Y we should use dekhi


because, "kitab"(book) is a feminine noun in Hindi.


why..is it no 'ho' ; tum ho ?


Because in the past tense transitives verbs like dekna do not agree with the subject (tum) but rather with their object, here kitab, singular and feminine.


Is there a rule of thumb in Hindi for when the word है can be omitted from the end of a sentence? For some reason, I thought the translation should have been 'क्या तुमने मेरी किताब देखी?'


है goes with all present tense sentences. The only exceptions are sentences with चाहिए where it is dropped and negative sentences with नहीं where it is optional.

When you drop the है in a present perfect tense sentence, it becomes a sentence in the preterite tense.
क्या तुमने मेरी किताब देखी है ? - Have you seen my book?
क्या तुमने मेरी किताब देखी? - Did you see my book?
If you add a था instead of है, it becomes the past perfect tense.
क्या तुमने मेरी किताब देखी थी? - Had you seen my book?


what's difference in "dekha& dekhi"?!


masculine & feminine


Masculine and feminine


Why is kya at the beginning? I thought it came before the verb in such cases.


When kya means 'what', it comes right before a verb.

In yes/no questions, 'kya' comes at the beginning. Basically, a statement can be converted into a yes/no question by prefixing it with a kya.
तुमने मेरी किताब देखी है। - You have seen my book.
क्या तुमने मेरी किताब देखी है? - Have you seen my book?

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