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  5. "Tomorrow I will read those b…

"Tomorrow I will read those books."

Translation:wa'leS paqmeyvetlh vIlaD.

May 28, 2019



Help me to understand how this sentence is structured as object/verb/subject?


{wa'leS}, "tomorrow", a time-stamp indicating when the sentence occurs. It is not an object or subject.
{paqmeyvetlh} n "those books", object of the verb:
{laD} v "to read".
{vI-} indicates the subject is "I/me", and agrees that the previously mentioned object is "them" in this case.


The basic word order is Object Verb Subject, but there are additional grammar points that mean a sentence will not always consist of exactly those things.

  1. The verb must indicate the object and subject through use (or absence) of a prefix. So it might be more accurate to say the basic structure should be:
    Object P-Verb Subject
    paqmeyvetlh vIlaD jIH "I read those books."

  2. Since the object and subject are already indicated by the prefix, it is not actually necessary to explicitly state the object and subject and sometimes they are not included as separate words. Thus, I will put them in parentheses to indicate that they are optional:
    (Object) P-Verb (Subject)
    vIlaD "I read them"

  3. Any terms that modify the sentence, like adverbs or timestamps come before the OVS structure of the sentence: (Timestamp) (Adverb) (Object) P-Verb (Subject)
    wa'leS (T) paqmeyvetlh (O) vIlaD (P-V) "Yesterday I read those books."
    (No adverb and the subject is included in the prefix rather than being added as a separate word.

Also note that there are other sentence structures witch do not use the standard OVS structure, such as copulas, comparatives, metaphors, etc.


Basic sentence or clause order in Klingon is:

{time expressions} {adverbials and syntactic noun phrases} {objects} {verb} {subjects}

Time expressions are nouns phrases that name a time. For instance, wa'leS. They always come first.

Syntactic nouns are nouns that have a type 5 suffix on them like -Daq, -vo', or -vaD. They come after any time expression but before any object.

When you start adding dependent clauses, like purpose clauses, conditional clauses, or while clauses, treat the basic sentence order as a unit and add the clause to the end (front or back, as appropriate) of it.

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