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  5. "Worf killed his enemy."

"Worf killed his enemy."

Translation:jaghDaj HoH wo'rIv.

June 2, 2019



When exactly is the -'e' suffix used? Is it only with 'oH, ghaH, etc (kind-of "to be pronouns") and therefore jaghDaj HoH wo'rIv'e' would be incorrect - right? Can someone elaborate please? Thx.


There are a number of ways to use the -'e' suffix and it can be used on almost any noun in almost any sentence to emphasize or bring focus to that noun. All of those uses are optional. The only place where the -'e' market is required is in pronoun-as-to-be sentences. In those sentence you must use the -'e' suffix on the noun which matches the subject of the English sentence. Thus that is where you will most consistently see the -'e' suffix.


jaghDaj HoH wo'rIv'e' is a grammatical sentence that means something like, "Worf (and I mean Worf specifically) kills his enemies."


Someone just wrote about this on fb's Learn Klingon group:

As for the {-'e'}, the type 5 noun suffix denoting the "topic", not to be confused with the pronoun.
You will primarily encounter this in a "to be" sentence saying one noun is another noun:
{qoH ghaH} "He is a fool."
{qoH ghaH yaS'e'} "The officer is a fool." Or more literally: "As for the officer, he is a fool." or {The officer, he is a fool.}
As {-'e'} is a type five, if the noun has an adjectival verb, it goes on the verb. e.g.
{qoH ghaH yaS Dogh'e'} "The foolish officer is a fool."

Otherwise you will see it used for indicating the main/head noun of a relative clause (noun-phrase with the -bogh verb suffix).
{naH pe'bogh yaS'e'} "The officer who cuts the fruit."
{naH'e' pe'bogh yaS} "The fruit that the officer cut."

Now, in addition to this copy-pasta, {jaghDaj HoH wo'rIv'e'} would not strictly be incorrect, but would add a certain amount of emphasis to the word {wo'rIv}, making it the equivalent to "and as for worf, he killed his enemy".

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