I don’t understand how “The bear is an animal” becomes “Ayi bir Hayvandır” instead of “Ayi bir hayvan” The same goes for “Kadın” changing to “Kadınsın”. I am unfamiliar of this, any help?
Well this wouldn't be a problem in spoken Turkish.But duo wants you to translate it word by word or exact meaning.
Keep in mind that we don't have 'the' and 'a' discrimination'.So if you see a problem about it later,that is about duo.
'The bear is an animal' and 'Bear is an animal' are same for us.Nothing like known bear/unknown bear.
Anyway,i'm going to answer the suffixes '-dır,-dir,-dur,dür'
These are the forms of 'be' in english. (Like; I 'am' boy,they 'are' rich)
Difference between 'Ayı bir hayvandır' and 'Ayı bir hayvan' is not that important.
I'm gonna compare this case in Turkish and English.
(The) bear is an animal / Ayı bir hayvandır
(The) bear an animal /Ayı bir hayvan
is the comparison word by word.
But you know,when you say 'bear an animal' in english,this doesn't really make sense but when you say 'Ayı bir hayvan' in Turkish,this makes.
And i continue with your other question.
If you want to say 'You are a woman' in turkish,you have to say;
'Sen bir kadınsın'
but if you say 'Sen kadın' this literally means 'You woman' english.Neither english nor turkish meaning of it make sense in this case.
'sın' stands for 'be' there. (other forms are '-sin,-sun,-sün')
I hope it helps :)