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Overview Grammar Topics, Bahasa Indonesia, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Tips & Notes of this course (Lightbulbs), all on one page:

"ia" & "dia" , "Basics 2", Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Question words, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'ini' , 'itu', Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Adjectives, Noun Phrase, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Negation: Tidak, bukan, jangan, belum, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Structure Basic sentence, Tips & notes, Addendum.

Ada, Tips & notes, Addendum.

Adalah, Tips & notes, Addendum.

"Me- verbs", Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'memper-' verbs , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Transitive & Intransitive verbs, Tips & notes, Addendum.

Passive type 1 and 2 , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

Apa, Siapa, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

-an Suffix, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

pe- Prefix, , Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'ke-an' affix, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

The Classifiers: Buah, Orang and Ekor

Tinycards Bahasa Indonesia, Kosakata Kursus Duolingo

"Words" tab, Indonesian

Comparisons and superlatives, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Adverbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum

Uses of "yang"

Indonesian vocabulary, Flashcards with audio

June 5, 2019



Thanks so much, I just started learning Indonesian!


This helped a lot!


Thank you so much for this. I will use this guide to help me on Indonesian.


Thank you! I'm now gonna learn Indonesian! :) Seems like a fun language!


I have recently started and it is my favourite language so far!


Thanks so much for all these! Would it be possible for the team to put these in the tips and notes sections of the lessons themselves instead of having to link them here? Is there a particular reason that these explanations are in the forum instead of the course notes itself? Not complaining at all, I just think it would be cool if everything were all in one place. Keep up the great work!!!


Would it be possible for the team to put these in the tips and notes sections of the lessons themselves instead of having to link them here?

Yes, it's work in progress, it takes time.

Is there a particular reason that these explanations are in the forum instead of the course notes itself?

Several reasons:
- The main reason is time, it just takes a lot of time to update the Tips&Notes (the lightbulbs).
- Most of these topics do not have a direct 1-on-1 relation with a specific skill.
- Most of these topics are too long to be included in the Tips&Notes.
- It's easier to do it like this in the beginning, by linking to these topics from the lightbulbs.
- The relevant bits and pieces from these topics can be incorporated in the lightbulbs later on.

Not complaining at all, I just think it would be cool if everything were all in one place.

Yes, that's why we have a "Sticky" topic right now, so that everything can be found in one place, at the top of the forum.


Do you contribute to the Indonesian course?


I started somewhere in Oct-2018, about two months after the course was released in Beta.


Great! Hope updates are coming!


Most of the grammar topics have already been posted.
I don't think a lot more grammar topics will be posted.

The Tips&Notes are still being updated.
You can use the duome.eu page for an overview :


On that page, click on the tab 'Tips&Notes' to see it all on one single page.

The course itself is not going to be updated as far as I know.
New alternative answers are still being added to the database and perhaps a couple of sentences will be removed/replaced.

No major updates are to be expected.


@Rick392366 Thanks for all the help!


mas rick aku mau bantu dong masih butuh orang?



I have been learning Indonesian at school since year seven and this year am doing year 12 Indonesian (and looking at continuing it at university level because, as an Australian, it is such a useful language). I picked up Duolingo at the start of this year to help me with Indonesian and it has been helpful, but I feel like the course is way too short.

Let me explain. I have learnt every word on the course, and still don't have the "learn 2000 words in a single language" trophy. So there's that.

But there are also things that are, I feel, missing...

There are SO many more me-, me-i and me-kan verbs that should be added (maybe in me- 2, me-i 2 and me-kan 2 lessons, to not chunk the current ones up to much).

A lesson on Indonesian culture and history would be amazing. Some of the arts was touched on in the arts lessons but a lesson with words such as "angklung", "wayang kulit", "motif", "borobudur", "prambanan", "dangdut", "gamelan", "SMA", "SMP", "SD", "bahasa daerah", "bahasa jawa", "bahasa Sunda" (a couple more of the main regional languages), "batik" "gotong royong", "sultan", "istana", "perdagangan rempah" and "penjajahan".

And a lesson on Indonesian food (maybe towards the start of the course to keep people motivated to learn?) like "bakso", "mie goreng", "rendang", "bubur", "pecel lele", "gudeg", "krupuk", "kue lapis", "bika ambon", "'soto ayam" and so many other amazing and depressingly under-appreciated Indonesian foods.

then also some more ke-an and pe-an nouns would be nice. For instance, the only grammatical use of ke-an mentioned is to form nouns. there are no ke-an verbs or adjectives in the course! like kebesaran = to big, kedatangan = to have someone drop in, kehujan = caught in the rain, kemalaman = too late. There are so many more examples like this.

Anyway, I feel like the current Indonesian course on Duolingo is incomplete. It is a good start but there are so many more words and topics to cover! hopefully someone with enough infuence (course mod?) sees this and can act help bring about some positive change.

(this entire thing is copied and pasted from a separate discussion started if anyone is wondering).



Very nice review, I agree with you! :)

We need more vocabularies and more lessons to be added. Furthermore, there are some lack of formal-informal consistency.

Indonesian is more complex than this course. So, the explanations should be clear.

However, overally I like the course. Answering some questions in the comment session is very enjoyable. Some questions like as (1) what is the difference between "senang" and "bahagia", (2) why not "makan" but "memakan", etc. are very interesting.

NB: I feel the same for "Bahasa Inggris" (English for Indonesian people) course. The materials are still so limited. Hope the contributors for this course will update "Indonesian" and "bahasa inggris."


Thanks for your commitment by posting all the important links ;). This will sure help to learn the language (after I am done with those on the top of my list) :)


What is tersebut?


"tersebut" (verb) = mentioned, aforementioned, already mentioned, already known, ...

"tersebut" is often translated into English with "that" / "the".
"tersebut" refers to something that was mentioned in a previous clause/sentence/parapraph.

Here are discussions where it's explained with examples (news articles):




Is there a link for the different times I use pria, laki laki, perempuan, wanita, and so on? Or could you explain?


Thank you, it clears things up!




thank you so much! I can't wait to use these tips!

[deactivated user]

    terima kasih banyak


    terima kassi banyak!


    Terima kasih!


    Terima kasih banyak!


    Terima kasih banyak!


    Terima kasih ini berkerja benyak.


    Really enjoying Indonesian so far. Finding it quite smooth and relatively simple to learn! Terimah Kasih!


    It is nice and easy! I love Indonesian, and have already come far with grammar (although me- verbs are hard to remember!)


    Thank you so much. I had finished my tree months ago but after the disappearance of the club's there was no help available. This inspired me to carry on


    One important thing I learned while learning Indonesian in Indonesia was that in daily conversation, for the word ''no'' they mostly use ''enggak'' or usually just ''ngak'' instead of ''tidak.'' When I started learning from a coursebook and not much later when I went to Indonesia for a while I started off just using ''tidak'', but as time went by and talked a lot with locals''ngak'' was the word I primarily used in conversation.

    • Ngak tahu.

    = I don't know.

    • Nenek saya ngak lagi suka jadi mabok.

    = My grandma doesn't like getting drunk anymore.

    • Kita ngak mau pergi ke pesta itu kalau ngak ramai

    = We don't want to go to that party if it isn't busy

    It might be a sound difficult to get used to by some people, its happenin far down your throat.

    Also the word ''you'' is used as little as possible. First of all I almost never hear people use the word ''Anda'', it's very formal. This word is mostly used in newspapers, commercials, signs etc. ''Kamu'' is definitely used aswell but espacially in questions they mostly like to use let's say the manner of adress like ''sir'', ''uncle'' or ''bro.''

    • Mau minum, Pak?

    = Do you want to drink something (Sir)?

    • Di mana beli makanan itu, bang?

    = Where did you buy that food from (brother)?

    • Lahir di mana, ibu?

    = Where were you born (Miss)?

    • Sudah umur berapa, adik?

    = How old are you (little brother/sister etc.)?

    You can see there is no ''you'' as in kamu or Anda, but in context it's always clear you're talking to them. Actually in context it's even clear if you don't use the manner of adress. Indonesian if very simple

    [deactivated user]

      Yup and that's point number two beside less emphasize on "the" and "of". We do actually only use around 30-40% of the formal way to speak Indonesian. Most of us, especially those with relatively lower education degree, can't even speak Indonesian formally. I guess only novelist like Andrea Hirata that knows exactly how to speak proper Bahasa.


      Great points and all very true in my experience.

      There indeed are a lot of forms for "tidak" in the colloquial. "Tak" and "Ga" for example. "Tak mungkin" = impossible "Ga ada" = tidak ada. As a non-native speaker I find the colloquial gets much harder the closer you get to Jakarta. Jakarta has a huge variety of colloquialisms which are constantly changing and derive from different neighborhoods and social groups. Really interesting but certainly challenging. Jakarta is a linguistic soup with lots of words borrowed from the native tongues of the residents. Lots of Javanese, Betawi, English, Hokkien etc. One interesting device is the the inversion of words. Like "Woles" = backward spelling of "Slow", means "chill" or "mellow", or "Isilop" or "Silop" backward forms of "Polisi" or Police.

      One of the simpler parts of colloquial I have noticed is the use of "nge+verb+ain" in place of "Me-verb-kan", makes verbs sound more Javanese and widely used.
      "Lagi Ngapain?" = what are you doing?

      Or just add Nge+any verb from any language to fake it and sound hip. "Mau ngedrink?" or "Ngedance", "Ngonkrong" = "Hang out" from Javanese "ngankring".

      Then of course the endless shortenings. Like "Mager" = "Malas Gerak" = "I'm to lazy to move" or "Pewe" = Posisi Wuenak = "I'm good here"......the list is endless, very fun. Enjoy!


      It's "Nongkrong" btw, and I'm amazed you know all these words, cause as a native, I dont know "isilop", maybe cause their not used frequently...


      Hello guys for everybody who want to join us let's use this link: https://chat.whatsapp.com/EI5Z7f0dqIHLAji0AhE5WS


      I tried to join, but apparently the link has been reset. Mungkin ada link lain? Trims


      Aku belajar bahasa indonesia dengan Duolingo untuk tujuh depan. Is this the place to learn more about grammar?


      Yes, this is the main grammar topic.
      I think that most of the necessary grammar subjects are explained in the links above.

      I think it's good to start with the topic "Structure Basic sentence".
      It's not a very popular topic (based on the number of upvotes).
      Maybe it's too theoretical, maybe people don't like to do sentence decompositions, I don't know the reason.
      Anyway, I think it's a good way to learn about the word order and about the usage of the affixes.

      Indonesian uses base words plus a system of affixes.
      I think that should be the next step in the learning process: the affixes.
      We have a handful of them, and the most frequently used affixes are also explained in the links above.


      @WayangOrang, I think the issue most people have is they want to learn b.Indo sehari-hari, bukan b.Indo formal. :-)

      Tentu saja you need to get the structure and grammar correct, but I get the feeling most people feel this course on Duolingo is too formal and not really useful for everyday communication.

      Tetapi, aku ini sangat menghargai pekerjaan kalian megembangkan kursus ini. Aku telah belajar banyak yang menjelaskan gimana pake tata bahasa yang jauh lebih baik daripada dulu! :-D

      Semoga kursus ini terus-menerus dikembangi di masa depan!


      Corr665827, WayangOrang, jmaddz:

      Oftentimes, Indonesian Duolingo Course mixes both informal (daily speaking) and formal ways. For example: Duolingo says pertama kali for "the first time". It is not valid according to some Indonesian linguist. It should be kali pertama. But, many people say pertama kali on their oral way ... Some lessons are still confusing if we look into "Berbahasa Indonesia Yang Benar". So, I assume that they tend to be in the Oral way. If it is not, then have they made some grammatical errors?

      Hope it will improve :)


      Thank you so much for sharing this.


      im a indonesian person, iam so proud of you !!!!

      [deactivated user]

        I think this one should be added (Uses of Yang) https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/30808070


        Link is added now.


        Thank you very much


        Thank you so much


        Thank you for your amazing work. I just wanted to know why the tips are available on the website but not on the app? When will they arrive? Thank you so much.


        are there any good conversation learning available?


        Terima kasih banyak! I've just started learning Indonesian and it's great to have access to all this reference material in one place.

        [deactivated user]

          Terima kasih kawan


          Wow! Duome.eu has all the tips and notes in one place. I never knew such a place existed.


          Thank you for this!

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