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In the nominative case (= for the subject and after the verbs "sein" (to be) and "werden" (to become)), it's
der (the) and ein (a/an) for masculine nouns
die (the) and eine (a/an) for feminine nouns
das (the) and ein (a/an) for neuter nouns
Mostly, the gender of nouns is arbitrary and has to be learnt by heart. For example, "der Löffel" (the spoon) is masculine, "die Gabel" (the fork) is feminine and "das Messer" (the knife) is neuter.
However, with people, the grammatical gender normally coincides with the biological gender: "der Mann" (the man) and "der Junge" (the boy) are masculine, and "die Frau" (the woman) is feminine, etc. A notable exception is "das Mädchen" (the girl), which is neuter (!) and not feminine. The reason for this is that it ends in the suffix -chen, which literally means "little" ("Mädchen" originally meant "little maid/woman"). All nouns ending in the suffix -chen are neuter, that's why "Mädchen" is neuter as well.
Well spotted :). Yes, at the end of a word a "d" is pronounced as a "t", i.e. "Kind" is actually pronounced as "Kint". See:
The same applies to other consonants such as "b" or "g", which are pronounced as "p" and "k" at the end of a word. This devoicing of the final consonant is also a stereotypical feature of a German accent in English, BTW.
I like how they threw this as a curve ball. "Ein" is "a/one" (masculine/neuter) and "der" is "the" (masculine). What throws me off a bit are the articles. If I were to change the indefinite articles (a/an) to definite (the), would it be, "Der Junge ist das Kind" (The boy is the child)?
Yes, "The boy is the child" would be "Der Junge ist das Kind".
In the nominative case, i.e. for the subject and after the verbs "sein" (to be) and "werden" (to become),
A/an = ein (masculine and neuter), eine (feminine)
The = der (masculine), das (neuter), die (feminine and plural)
The pronunciation of the letter d is supposed to sound like an english t?
Yes, as I said above, at the end of a word a "d" is pronounced as a "t", i.e. "Kind" is actually pronounced as "Kint". See:
The same applies to other consonants such as "b", which is pronounced as "p" at the end of a word.