https://www.duolingo.com/Rick392366

'memper-' verbs , Tips & Notes, Addendum

'memper-' verbs are transitive (needing an object).
('diper-' verbs are the passive counterpart).

Some of these verbs only need the 'memper-' prefix :
Examples:
banyak ==> memperbanyak ==> to make more
mudah ==> mempermudah ==> to make easier
kecil ==> memperkecil ==> to make smaller
besar ==> memperbesar ==> to make bigger

Other verbs also need the '-kan' suffix :
Examples:
bincang ==> memperbincangkan ==> to talk about
banding ==> memperbandingkan ==> to compare
salah ==> mempersalahkan ==> to blame
timbang ==> mempertimbangkan ==> to consider

Other verbs also need the '-i' suffix :
Examples:
baik ==> memperbaiki ==> to fix,
lengkap ==> memperlengkapi ==> to equip
senjata ==> mempersenjatai ==> to arm
baru ==> memperbarui ==> to update

If [base word] = (Adjective),
meaning ==> the verb is usually 'causative'.

Examples:
jelas ==> memperjelas ==> to make clearer, to clarify
besar ==> memperbesar ==> to make bigger, to enlarge
dalam ==> memperdalam ==> to make deeper, to deepen
berat ==> memperberat ==> to make heavier
indah ==> memperindah ==> to make more beautiful
mudah ==> mempermudah ==> to make easier
sulit ==> mempersulit ==> to make more difficult
sukar ==> mempersukar ==> to make more difficult
panjang==> memperpanjang ==> to make longer
pendek ==> memperpendek ==> to make shorter
baik ==> memperbaiki ==> to make better

'memper-' and 'me-kan' verbs are causative, but there is a difference in meaning.
'me-kan' ==> 'the state before was not yet like the [base word]'.
'memper-' ==> 'the state before was already like the [base word], now the [base word] is there in a higher degree'.

Examples:
kecil ==> mengecilkan (to make it small) ==> memperkecil (to make it smaller)
sempit ==> menyempitkan (to make it narrow) ==> mempersempit (to make it narrower)
sulit ==> menyulitkan (to make it difficult) ==> mempersulit (to make it more difficult)
panjang ==> memanjangkan (to make it long) ==> memperpanjang (to make it longer)
tinggi ==> meninggikan (to make it high) ==> mempertinggi (to make it higher)
jelas ==> menjelaskan (to explain) ==> memperjelas (to explain further)

KBBI definitions:
https://kbbi.web.id/kecil

mengecilkan/me·nge·cil·kan/ v 1 menjadikan kecil (sempit, kurang, dan sebagainya):
memperkecil/mem·per·ke·cil/ v menjadikan lebih kecil (sempit dan sebagainya);

https://kbbi.web.id/sempit

menyempitkan/me·nyem·pit·kan/ v menjadikan sempit;
mempersempit/mem·per·sem·pit/ v menjadikan lebih sempit;

https://kbbi.web.id/sulit

menyulitkan/me·nyu·lit·kan/ v menjadikan sulit; menyukarkan; menyusahkan;
mempersulit/mem·per·su·lit/ v membuat jadi lebih sulit;

https://kbbi.web.id/panjang

memanjangkan/me·man·jang·kan/ v menjadikan panjang (dari pendek);
memperpanjang/mem·per·pan·jang/ v menjadikan lebih panjang (dari yang sudah panjang);

https://kbbi.web.id/tinggi

meninggikan/me·ning·gi·kan/ v menjadikan tinggi; mengangkat supaya tinggi;
mempertinggi/mem·per·ting·gi/ v menjadikan lebih atau bertambah tinggi:

https://kbbi.web.id/jelas

menjelaskan/men·je·las·kan/ v menerangkan; menguraikan secara terang;
memperjelas/mem·per·je·las/ v membuat lebih jelas;


If [base word] = (Noun),
meaning ==> to consider 'the object' as [base word].
meaning ==> to let 'the object' become [base word].

Examples:
istri ==> memperistri ==> menjadikan istri
budak ==> memperbudak ==> menganggap sebagai budak
suami ==> mempersuami ==> menjadikan suami
alat ==> memperalat ==> menganggap sebagai alat

'alat' (tool) ==> memperalat = to consider 'the object' as [a tool], to manipulate.
Dia memperalat orang itu untuk mencapai maksudnya.
He manipulates that person to achieve his goal.

'budak'(slave) ==> memperbudak = to consider 'the object' as [slave], to enslave.
Dia memperbudak buruhnya.
He enslaves his workers.


Some transitive 'memper-kan' verbs and 'memper-i' verbs, have the same meaning as the intransitive 'ber-' verbs.
meaning ==> to let 'the object' become [base word].

Examples:
temu ==> mempertemukan = menjadikan bertemu
tunang ==> mempertunangkan = menjadikan bertunangan
satu ==> mempersatukan = menjadikan bersatu
senjata ==> mempersenjatai = menjadikan bersenjata
hitung ==> memperhitungkan = menjadikan berhitung
istri ==> memperistrikan = menjadikan beristri
suami ==> mempersuamikan = menjadikan bersuami


Another group of "memper-" verbs are synonymous with 'ber-' verbs with a preposition:
Examples:
bincang ==> memperbincangkan = berbincang tentang = to talk about
ingat ==> memperingati = ingat akan = to commemorate
juang ==> memperjuangkan = berjuang untuk = to fight for
tanya ==> mempertanyakan = bertanya tentang = to ask about
gunjing ==> mempergunjingkan = bergunjing tentang = to gossip about


In addition to the above mentioned meanings, there are also "memper-" verbs whose meanings must be determined separately based on the given context.
Examples:
mempersoalkan
mempermasalahkan
mempertunjukkan
memperjualbelikan


To summarise :
'memper-' verbs are transitive (needing an object).
If [base word] = (Adjective) ==> the verb is usually 'causative'.
If [base word] = (Noun) ==> to consider 'the object' as [base word].


Related topics:

'Passive type 1 and 2':
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31279476

'Transitive & Intransitive verbs':
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/29750515

'me-i' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum.
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31492630

'me-kan' verbs, Tips & Notes, Addendum.
https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/31492596


Source :
TBBI, Tata Bahasa Baku Bahasa Indonesia (Edisi Ketiga), Bab 4.5.1.2.4. Penurunan verba transitif dengan 'per-' dan '-kan/-i'.

June 15, 2019

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