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'ke-an' affix, Tips & Notes, Addendum.

'ke-an' circumfix is used to form nouns/verbs/adjectives.

'ke-an' circumfix is mostly used to form nouns.

The base word can be an adjective, a verb or a noun.

'ke-an' nouns are usually of an abstract nature (beauty, kindness, sadness, etc..).
'ke-an' verbs are intransitive verbs.

Examples 'ke-an' :
cantik (adj) ==> kecantikan (n) = beauty.
baik (adj) ==> kebaikan (n) = goodness, kindness.
sedih (adj) ==> kesedihan (n) = sadness.
butuh (v) ==> kebutuhan (n) = need, necessity.
sempat (v) ==> kesempatan (n) = oppurtinity.
kurang (adj) ==> kekurangan (n) = shortage
banjir (v) ==> kebanjiran (v) = to be flooded.
banyak (adj) ==> kebanyakan (n) = mostly/majority/quantity/too much.
naik (v) ==> kenaikan (n) = increase.
gagal (v) ==> kegagalan (n) = failure.
kurang (adj) ==> kekurangan (n) = shortage.
terang (adj) ==> keterangan (n) = explanation.
bakar (v) ==> kebakaran (n/v) = fire.
kaya (adj) ==> kekayaan (n) = wealth.
dingin (adj) ==> kedinginan (adj/n) = to suffer from the cold, too cold
untung (n) ==> keuntungan (n) = luck.
beruntung (v) ==> keberuntungan (n) = profit, benefit.
lihat (v) ==> kelihatan (v) = look, appear.
dengar (v) ==> kedengaran (v) = hear.


Examples 'ke-an':

cantik (adj) ==> kecantikan (n)
Semua orang tahu Tini cantik.
Semua orang tahu tentang kecantikan Tini.
Kecantikan Tini terkenal sekali.
Everyone knows Tini is beautiful.
Everyone knows about Tini's beauty.
Tini's beauty is very well known.

baik (adj) ==> kebaikan (n)
Semua orang tahu Tini baik.
Semua orang tahu tentang kebaikan Tini.
Everyone knows Tini is kind.
Everyone knows about Tini's kindness.

sedih (adj) ==> kesedihan (n)
Tini merasa sedih.
Kesedihan Tini.
Tini feels sad.
Tini's sadness.

butuh (v) ==> kebutuhan (n)
Semua orang butuh air.
Air adalah kebutuhan semua orang.
Everyone needs water.
Water is everyone's need.

sempat (v) ==> kesempatan (n)
Tono tidak sempat pergi ke pasar.
Tono tidak ada kesempatan untuk pergi ke pasar.
Tono doesn't have time (opportunity) to go to the market.

kurang (adj) ==> kekurangan (n)
Tono kurang waktu karena lalu lintas macet.
Tono kekurangan waktu karena kemacetan lalu lintas.
Tono doesn't have enough time (is short of time) because of the traffic jam.

Mereka hidup serba kekurangan.
They live in poverty.

Pada musim kemarau Jakarta sering kekurangan air.
During the dry season Jakarta often has a water shortage.

banjir (v) ==> kebanjiran (v)
Pada musim hujan Jakarta sering kebanjiran.
During the rainy season Jakarta is often flooded.

banyak (adj) ==> kebanyakan (n)
Bukan kebanyakan anggota yang penting, tetapi kualitasnya.
It's not the quantity of the members that is important, but the quality.
Kebanyakan murid-murid di kelas kami mempunyai sepeda motor.
Most of the students in our class have a motorbike.
Kebanyakan asal membayar lebih, akan didahulukan pelayanannya.
Mostly/Usually, as long as you pay more, you will be served earlier.
Kebanyakan merokok, tidak baik untuk kesehatan.
Too much smoking is not good for the health.

naik (v) ==> kenaikan (n) = increase.
Harga sedang naik.
Prices are rising.
Kenaikan harga tidaklah terjadi pada semua barang.
The increase in prices did not happen to all goods.
Kenaikan pangkatnya tertunda.
The increase in rank (the promotion) is delayed.

gagal (v) ==> kegagalan (n) = failure.
Dia gagal menjadi lurah.
He failed in becoming the village chief.
Kegagalannya untuk menjadi lurah menyebabkan dia frustrasi.
His failure to become the village chief causes him frustration.

terang (adj) ==> keterangan (n) = explanation.
Guru kita akan memberikan keterangan tentang ujian.
Our teacher will give an explanation about the exam.

bakar (v) ==> kebakaran (n/v) = fire.
Kebakaran hutan sering terjadi dalam musim kemarau.
Forest fires often happen in the dry season.
Karena kebakaran itu, dia tidak mempunyai tempat berteduh.
Because of the fire, he does not have a shelter.
Kebakaran janggut. = Bingung tidak keruan.
Beard on fire = Perplexed, freaking out.

kaya (adj) ==> kekayaan (n) = wealth.
Kekayaan kadang-kadang menimbulkan kesombongan.
Wealth sometimes causes arrogance.
Kekayaannya tidak seberapa.
His wealth is not much.

dingin (adj) ==> kedinginan (adj/n)
hujan (n) ==> kehujanan (v)
Anak itu kedinginan karena basah kuyup kehujanan.
That child is suffering from the cold because he is soaking wet due to the rain.
Kedinginan udara di luar mengharuskan kita berpakaian tebal.
The cold air outside requires us to dress thick (warm).

untung (n) ==> keuntungan (n)
Keuntungan perusahaannya cukup besar.
The profit of his company is large enough.

beruntung (v) ==> keberuntungan (n)

lihat (v) ==> kelihatan (v)
Kolam renang kelihatan dari kamar kami.
The swimming pool can be seen from our room.

dengar (v) ==> kedengaran (v)
Bunyinya sirene kedengaran dari rumah kami.
The sound of the sirene can be heard from our house.

June 15, 2019

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